ABSTRACTS SELECTED FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS
Theme 1 - Development within the Built Environment
Name
Institute/Org
Abstract Title
Tasmi Quazi
 
Asiye Etafuleni
Inclusion Of Waste Pickers Into National And Local Government Plans
Motlokoa David Makhoabenyane & Kevin Duffy
DUT
A Study Of The Determinants Of Migration To South African Inner Cities Using System Dynamics
Mrs BYC Mvuyana
 
MUT
The Impact Of Rural-Urban Migration On The Demand For Housing In The Urban Areas
Olayemi Bakre
DUT
Impact Of Water Scarcity On Rural Development: A Case Study Of Inchanga
Dave Pons
MUT
Banana Pyramid scheme in Umlazi (MUT)
Prishah Narsai
eThekwini
Variations in Housing satisfaction and health status in Four Lower socio-economic Housing Typologies in a South African Metropolitan City
Theme 2 -  Localising Economic Development and Job Creation
Name
Institute/Org
Abstract Title
Errol Douwes and Kathryn Terblanche
 
eThekwini
Working For Ecosystems Programme - eThekwini Municipality
 
Dr Anneline Chetty
eThekwini
SMMES: A Public Or Private Affair!!
Caili Forrest
eThekwini
Jobs, Jobs, Jobs! : Monitoring Employment In The ethekwini Municipality
Nyasha Mboti
UKZN
Durban as a Film City’ Project: A collaborative UKZN and Durban Film Office (DFO) partnership for researching the extent of Durban’s ‘film-friendliness’
Ms NF Mkhizeand Prof BC Mubangizi
UKZN
The Impact of the expanded Public Works Programme: A case Study of eThekwini Municipality
Jennifer Houghton
 
UKZN
Development In Context: An Exploration Of How Leaders, Locally Embedded Capital, And Networks Influence Durban’s Public Private Partnerships And Their Urban Interventions.
Linda Mbonambi
 
 
Nompumelelo Thabethe
 
eThekwini
 
 
UKZN
Local Economic Development (LED) or Community Economic Development (CED): A case of the Inanda, Ntuzuma, KwaMashu (INK) region of eThekwini Municipality, Durban
Tasmi Quazi
 
Asiye Etafuleni
Municipal Approaches To Incorporating The Informal Economy Into The Urban Fabric
Ndwakhulu Tshishonga
 
UKZN
Reducing Dependncy And Promoting Localised Economic Development Through Co-Op Model At Cato Manor: A Compartaive Advantage
Theme 3 -  Natural Environment, Climate Change, Water and Energy
Name
Institute/Org
Abstract Title
Bheka Nxele, Errol Douwes and Rael Hughes
eThekwini
Working on Fire Programme - eThekwini Municipality
Errol Douwes and Nicci Diederichs
eThekwini
Buffelsdraai Landfill Site Community Reforestation Programme - eThekwini Municipality
Dr Andrew Mather
eThekwini
Coastal Zone Management And Rising Sea Levels
Dr Angela James
UKZN
Student Research and Service-Learning for Community Enhancement: Case studies
Dr SK Sheena Kumari
DUT
Microbial Population Database- A Tool for Evaluating Bnr Processes In Kwazulu Natal
Professor Faizal Bux and Dr Taurai Mutanda
DUT
Environmental and Technical Evaluation of the Dual Use of Microalgae for Municipal Wastewater Bioremediation and Sustainable Biofuel Production
Derek Morgan
eThekwini
Addressing the Challenges of Energy Efficiency Demand Side Management - A Municipal Perspective
Ntandoyenkosi Malusi Mkhize
UKZN
Potential Amounts Of Biomass Available For Biorefinery Processing In South Africa
Theme 4  - Fostering Governance and Local Government Responsiveness
Name
Institute/Org
Abstract Title
Bongumusa Zondo
eThekwini
Engaging Children on What Matters the most is not Childrens’ Play–Lessons from Glenwood and Lovu
Bongumusa Zondo
eThekwini
Creating, Leading and Facilitating Change – Institutionalisation of eThekwini Long-Term Development Plan
L.F Ntuli
MUT
Community Participation In The Implementation Of The Integrated Development Plan With Reference To Inanda Township In The Province Of Kwazulu-Natal
Qhubokuhle Dlamini
UKZN
Functions of our Local Government under the New Framework and Chapter 3 of the Constitution
Udo Averweg
eThekwini
Towards A Municipal Information Society: ethekwini Municipality’s Metro©Onnect Project
Dr Ivan Govender
DUT
Monitoring And Evaluation In Municipalities: A Case Study Of KwaZulu - Natal
Dr. Nobubele Potwana,
UKZN
Integrating Employee Assistance Programmes With Organisational Citizenship Behaviour
Dr. Fayth Ruffin
UKZN
Municipal Internationalism in Metropolitan eThekwini
Brian O’Leary, Lengolo, M.
eThekwini
Public Satisfaction With Services In Durban
Theme 5 - Health
Name
Institute/Org
Abstract Title
K Asharam
UKZN

Ambient Pollution and Birth Outcomes

Dudu Sokhela
DUT
Assessment Of The Experiences Of Users Of The Fast Queue
In Selected Primary Health Care Facilities, In The eThekwini Municipality.
Thembelihle Sylvia Patience Ngxongo 
DUT

Factors Influencing Implementation of Basic Ante Natal Care Programme In Primary Health Care Clinics In eThekwini District, Kwazulu-Natal

Firoza Haffejee
UKZN
Poor Postnatal Visits At Local Public Sector Hospital
Professor Threethambal Puckree DUT
Lung Function In A Selected eThekwini Community
Professor Bilkish Cassim
UKZN
The Influence Of Socioeconomic And Environmental Factors On The Health Status And Quality Of Life In Older Persons In The Inanda, KwaMashu And Ntuzuma Areas Of The eTthekwini Municipality, South Africa
Theme 6 -  Enhancing Social Equity
Name
Institute/Org
Abstract Title
Rowan Gatfield
DUT
Walking With Dignity: The Durban Rickshaw Renovation Project
Nontobeko Mnyanda
DUT
Interpreting services in SASL and isiZulu in some of the courts in KwaZulu-Natal
Theme 7  - Safety and Security
Name
Institute/Org
Abstract Title
Festus Maina
DUT
Development Of Granular-Medium-Based Impact Energy Management System
Chris Overall
Ethekwini
Crime Mapping And Analysis Project,Safer Cities, Ethekwini Municipality
Brian O’leary
Ethekwini
Crime Trends In Durban
Dr Maliga Reddy
DUT
An Integrated Disaster Risk Assessment Model For Local Government In South Africa
Dr M. Maharaj and Ngobese, N.
 
DUT
Client Perception Of Service Delivery In  The South African Police Service Community Service Centres  In The Greater Durban Area
 Dr. Egerton D.C. Hingston &  Ms Kumesh Naidoo
UKZN
Back-Analyses Studies Of The Quarry Heights Road Landslide, Durban.
Crispin Hemson
DUT
The Archaeology Of Violence
ABSTRACTS SELECTED FOR POSTER PRESENTATIONS
Theme 1 - Development within the Built Environment
Name
Institute/Org
Abstract Title
Jacob Twala
KZN Treasury
Structure of KwaZulu-Natal Economy: a Sam Base Analysis
Theme 2 -  Localising Economic Development and Job Creation
Name
Institute/Org
Abstract Title
Prof N. Deenadayalu
DUT
Green Chemistry and Sustainability For Economic Development And Job Creation
E.A. Mantzaris ,Mrs. Pravina Moodliar and  Ms. S. Buthelezi
MUT
Univesity Activism, Rural Community Engagement, Research And Participation: A Proposed L.E.D.  Initiative For The eThekwini Municipality
Dr Mandusha Maharaj
DUT
Blending the digital divide at Durban University of Technology with a blended learning model for marketing students: A case study at the eThekwini campus 
Dr Clive Coetzee
KZN Treasury
City Economic Integration in KwaZulu-Natal – A Possible Growth Policy
Dr Mandusha Maharaj & Samkele Vuyokazi Mizpha Konyana
DUT
Promotional Tools At Selected Universities In The Tshwane Metropolitan Region
Thandazile Mngomezulu
DUT
The Allocation Of Interpreting And Translation Assignments To The Qualified People
Theme 3 -  Natural Environment, Climate Change, Water and Energy
Name
Institute/Org
Abstract Title
Mutanda T, Robinson H & Bux F
DUT
An argument for the use of rain water harvesting as a national resource saving strategy
Refiloe Ntoi
DUT
A Systems Approach to Ecosystem Management in Hazelmere, South Africa
HW Bernhardt
UKZN
A low cost parabolic solar water heater suitable for domestic use.
Bruce Sithole
UKZN
Pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) - a very useful tool for analysis and characterisation of organic materials in water samples
Theme 4  - Fostering Governance and Local Government Responsiveness
Name
Institute/Org
Abstract Title
Bheki R. Mngomezulu
 
DUT
The urban/rural divide in local government in South Africa: The case of Jozini Local Municipality
Theme 5 - Health
Name
Institute/Org
Abstract Title
Dr  Nh  Gcabashe
DUT
Health Promotion–Educational Approach
Thabani Khumalo
DUT
Research On The Provision Of Interpreting Services In The Medical Sector
Sheena Muttoo
UKZN
A Framework For Land Use Regression Model Development To Determine Exposure Among Pregnant Women In Durban
Theme 6 -  Enhancing Social Equity
Name
Institute/Org
Abstract Title
Cabangile N. Ngwane 
DUT
Factors which Enhance Social Equity at the eThekwini Municipality
Ms Sathishah
DUT
Exploring inequality in institutional marketing to higher education by marginalised communities: Case Study at the Durban University of Technology
 
 
 
 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
________________________________________
  
Theme 1
 
Development within the Built  Environment
  
________________________________________
 
Name: Jacob Twala (KZN Provincial Treasury)
Structure of KwaZulu-Natal Economy: a Sam Base Analysis
 
The KwaZulu Natal Provincial Growth and Development Strategy (KZN PGDS) bolsters the Province’s commitment to achieving the vision of KwaZulu Natal (KZN) as a “Prosperous Province with a healthy, secure and skilled population”. The PGDS aims to build this gateway by growing the economy for the development and the improvement of the quality of life of all people living in the Province. Whilst the Provincial Government of KZN is leading this process, its success depends on strong compacts with labour, civil society and business.
 
Thus a critical success factor in achieving the PGDS is for all stakeholders to be synchronized in the single minded pursuit of shifting KZN’s growth path towards shared growth and integrated sustainable development. However, this in turn needs to be grounded on the deeper understanding of the KZN economy in terms of production, valueadded, total absorption, imports, exports and households income. It is within this understanding that the 2011 KZN PGDS is designed to facilitate sustainable economic growth, reduce growing inequality and promote environmental sustainability (KZN Provincial Planning Commission, 2011).
 
With the above brief backdrop in mind, the purpose of this paper is to contribute towards the understanding of the provincial economy by giving a detailed structural analysis of the province utilizing the provincial social accounting matrix (SAM) compiled by the Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) using 2006 prices. Since EThekwini Metro contributes more than 64 per cent of the total provincial Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), this study will therefore indirectly provide an understanding of the Metro’s economic structure. The paper is thus expected to contribute in outlining the competitive advantages in developing strategies for sustained growth and job creation applicable to EThekwini Metro.
 
________________________________________
 
Name: Tasmi Quazi (Asiye Etafuleni, Durban, South Africa)
Inclusion Of Waste Pickers Into National And Local Government Plans
 
NPO Asiye eTafuleni (AeT) was commissioned by eThekwini Municipality’s Imagine Durban Project to implement a pilot project to test ways of improving the livelihoods of existing waste pickers operating in Durban, South Africa. This focussed on cardboard recycling which is one of the major recycling activities in the inner-city. The research work aimed at understanding the existing recycling chains in the innercity, including a survey of the socio-economic backgrounds and situational analyses of waste-pickers. This resulted in identifying two specific groups of waste pickers as case-study participants.

 

The process commenced by conducting one-on-one interviews with a range of stakeholders in the sector and mapping studies informed by the prior institutional experience of the founders of AeT and complemented by snowballing and desktop research. After the specific groups were identified, AeT engaged in action-research through practical work experience and observation studies with the waste pickers in their working environments. This subsequently led to AeT testing custom-made aprons, trolleys and other equipment in response to their identified needs.
 
The government’s green economy strategy is intended to support decent jobs which could be achieved through the inclusion of all forms of recycling. This project has contributed to a better understanding of the role of informality and the integrated urban management needs within the recycling sector. The key elements for advancing this approach would be a clear national policy and implementation strategy, the integration of informal recyclers into specific local government programmes, and lastly multifaceted partnerships between government, private sector and waste pickers.
 
Keywords: waste pickers, informality, waste management, action-research, green economy, recycling
 
________________________________________
 
Name: Motlokoa David Makhoabenyane and Kevin Duffy
A Study Of The Determinants Of Migration To South African Inner Cities Using System Dynamics
 
Durban University of Technology, Institute of Systems Science, Durban, South Africa. The aim of this study was to develop models for determining the population migration dynamics of South African inner cities. In this study, a survey questionnaire was conducted from sample populations of inner city residents of the five largest metropolitan areas in South Africa.  These data were analysed statistically and model variables developed such as people’s employment statuses, educational levels and monthly incomes.  Variables were used to understand how people get attracted to, leave or stay in South African cities. It was found that the most significant variable for rural-to-urban migration in South Africa is income. It was further found that it is not purely the amounts earned but the income distribution patterns that have the most impact on South African inner city population migrations. City growth system dynamic models were developed for scenario planning. The usefulness of the models and their outputs will be discussed with emphasis on the eThekwini metropolitan region.
 
Keywords: migration, models, South Africa, system dynamics, scenario planning, income distributions
 
Supervisor: Prof. Kevin Duffy, +27 83 232 5246
_______________________________________
 
Presenter: Mrs BYC Mvuyana
Title  : The Impact Of Rural-Urban Migration On The Demand For Housing In The Urban Areas
Institution: Mangosuthu University of Technology
Department: Public Management
Supervisor: Prof R.S. Masango
 
 
Rural-urban migration appears to be an ongoing process in South Africa. This is attributed to various reasons. In itself, the process contributes towards an ongoing demand for services such as housing, water, sanitation and transportation systems.
 
Rural – urban migration plays a key role in urbanization.  The living conditions in rural areas appear to be the main contributing factors towards rural-urban migration. This indicates that the challenges facing rural communities include the creation of conducive environments within those communities. Hence, the issue of rural-urban migration should be addressed from the spatial and socio – economic perspectives.
 
In an attempt to address human settlements needs, South Africa has a policy framework which supports the right to housing as it has been accorded to South African citizens by their Constitution. The objective is to ensure that there is adequate housing for South Africans.
 
This study investigated and analysed the relationship between rural-urban migration and housing delivery in Clermont Township in the Province of KwaZulu-Natal. The participants included the residents of Clermont Township and the representatives of the eThekwini Municipality. A snowball sampling method was used to collect data from the participants.
 
Among others, the study found that rural-urban migration is an ongoing process which affects housing delivery in urban areas. As a result it continues to make the objective of ensuring that there is adequate housing for South Africans unattainable. Hence, attention should be paid to the effects of rural-urban migration in housing delivery.
 
_________________________________________
 
Theme 2 - Localising Economic Development and Job
 
Creation
 
_________________________________________
 
Errol Douwes1* and Kathryn Terblanche1*
1* Environmental Planning and Climate Protection Department, EThekwini Municipality
Working For Ecosystems Programme - eThekwini Municipality
 
 
 The City of Durban aims to be the most liveable City in Africa by 2020. However, climate change now poses a significant and growing threat and could effectively derail the process required to reach this goal.A more sustainable, green economy musturgently be created, in order to ensure more resilient communities, and healthy ecosystems, which are able to buffer against the predicted climate extremes and associated impacts. Ecosystem restoration, sustainable development and the provision of green jobs are all key factors in achieving community ecosystem based adaptation to climate change.
 
The eThekwini Municipality’s Environmental Planning and Climate Protection Department (EPCPD), in late 2006,initiated the ‘Working for Ecosystems’ programme with funding obtained from the former Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT). The funding formed part of the national government’s Expanded Public Works Programme, which serves to create jobs and skills development opportunities for poor and/or marginalized communities. The DEAT funding parameters ensured that women, youth and the disabled were well represented in the project workforce.
 
The philosophy behind the ‘Working for Ecosystems’ concept is to build a holistic and positive interaction between local communities and the environment. Training, skills development, and employment opportunities are created to alleviate poverty and empower community members. This training and awareness aids in the management of environmentally important areas and contributes to communities becoming more self sustaining and more adapted to natural disasters as may occur due to climate change. The programme has a strong sustainable development focus and, together with WESSA and the Small Enterprise Development Association (SEDA), aims to equip teams with business skills required for registration and operation as cooperatives in these communities. This includes assistance with registration on the city’s procurement database which is essential if co-ops are tendering for other work offered by the municipality. The programme is currently working with a group of Umkhonto we Sizwe Military Veterans who are highly trained in the control of invasive alien plants. Their expertise is helping to ensure that new business skills filter down to local communities.
 
Local community members,employed in the programme, actively eradicate invasive alien plants in project areas prioritised for environmental management. Control of these plants not only ensures improved water flow and reduced soil erosion, but the direct benefits to local people, livestock and biodiversity is significant. The project, now fully funded by eThekwini Municipality, currently employs over 120 people in the Ntshongweni, Mzinyathi, Paradise Valley, and Roosefontein areas. WESSA, a Non-Government Organisation (NGO), is the current implementing agent. WESSA’s business plan was prepared in consultation with the EPCPD and relevant stakeholders including localcommunity members. While funding is currently limited to invasive alien plant control, the EPCPD aims to expand the programme to include community awareness initiatives, training of tour guides, litter collection, and the establishment of indigenous nurseries. Environmental education and awareness programmes are run in local schools to ensure the youth are involved.
 
 
___________________________________________
 
Prof N. Deenadayalu,
Green Chemistry and Sustainability For Economic Development And Job Creation
Chemistry Department, Durban University of Technology
PO Box 1334, Steve Biko Campus, Durban, 4000
 
 
Durban, South Africa hosted the COP 17 Conference during Nov-Dec 2011 with no binding outcomes for the reduction of CO2. Over the years there has been a shift of commercialization of chemicals to the developing countries however industrialized nations do not accept that they should be responsible for assisting developing countries.
 
At a meeting of the UN Conference on Sustainable Development in 2012 to prepare for a global green economy a stalemate was reached on issues of funding, training and technological aid. Developed nations expect developing countries to look at their own government, private sector and other stakeholders to “leverage” resources for sustainable development.
 
A report released by the International Resource Panel (IRP) calls for “decoupling “ a term used to separate rate of economic activity from the rate of resource use and environmental degradation. This involves the replacement of consumption by sustainability–orientated investment. The requirements of sustainable development is the replacement of traditional industries with new technologies/new industries for job creation within local communities.
 
How can Green Chemistry and new technologies contribute to sustainable development? What are the possible green technologies that can be exploited for sustainability and job creation?
 
In this presentation a few industries that address the issue of green chemistry and sustainability will be elaborated upon.
 
________________________________________
 
 
Name: Dr Anneline Chetty
SMMES: A PUBLIC OR PRIVATE AFFAIR!!
 
SMMEs are considered to be the engines of growth of any economy. In the light of recent economic events and the recession that is surging rapidly across the globe, more and more attention is being focused on SMME development and support. Whilst there are a number of organisations (both public and private) who provide support to SMMEs within the eThekwini Municipality Area (EMA), the overall impacts of these initiatives on SMME growth and development is minimal and there is a dearth of studies that critically examine business support services for SMMEs provided by the public and private sectors.
 
The main objectives of this study sought to assess the capacity of both the private and public sectors to provide effective support and development to SMMEs. Quantitative surveys were conducted with 250 SMMEs who attended various Fairs and conferences held across the EMA. Semi-structured interviews (qualitative approach) were conducted with representatives from the private and public sectors that provide support or services to the SMMEs in the EMA. In this regard, 53 representatives from the public sector and 50 from the private sector were interviewed. The analysis was undertaken thematically and, where relevant, findings pertaining to the different stakeholders interviewed were compared and discussed.
 
The researcher is confident that the objective of this study has been achieved. Some of the key findings indicate that SMME respondents were more aware of local government and the services they provide than any other tier of government. Furthermore, SMME respondents within the study did not fully grasp the concept of Business Development Services and the associated benefits for their business. Generally, SMMEs rely heavily on government to provide services free of charge. The main finding is that private sector service providers are better qualified, positioned and trained to provide BDS than the public sector whose main roles should be that of regulator, facilitator and promoter. Whilst government has been a strong proponent of SMME development and support since 1994, this study presents a strong case for the increased role of the private sector. In addition, this study also motivates that local government through their Municipalities can play a significant role in SMME development and support in partnership with the private sector.
________________________________________
 
 
Caili Forrest
JOBS, JOBS, JOBS! : MONITORING EMPLOYMENT IN THE ETHEKWINI MUNICIPALITY
eThekwini Municipality Economic Development Unit
Policy, Strategy, Information and Research Department
Durban, South Africa
Supervisor:  Dr Ajiv Maharaj (Deputy Head),
 
Key words: job(s), (un)employment, work, monitoring, local government, governance
 
 
Job creation is a direct focus of South Africa’s national economic policy and a key debate in the political sphere. This is not surprising given persistently high unemployment, poverty and inequality despite efforts to curtail, what President Zuma calls, our ‘triple challenge’. With this spotlight on jobs has come a myriad of targets, interventions and pressures to perform for the socioeconomic, political and environmental wellbeing of the country.
 
In response, one of the eThekwini municipality’s interventions has been to initiate the creation of a consolidated job monitoring system for the City in order to better inform decision making and improve governance. The system attempts to capture jobs created directly by the municipality as well as employment in the broader municipal economy. Outside of the stringent monitoring procedures of the Expanded Public Works Programme, job intelligence locally is primarily gathered from National and Provincial data, relatively ad hoc reporting on a project/programme basis, and mass ‘one off’ studies. Through a review of current policy and practice, key internal and external stakeholder interviews, and action research undertaken in developing the system, this research provides insight into the challenges and opportunities in job monitoring at the local level. Creating a consolidated, practical and comprehensive system, which reveals localised insights on employment directly to the implementing arm of government, is a significant step towards improving government capacity as a player in the economic space and as a direct job creator.
 
________________________________________
 
Nyasha Mboti, Ph.D. Centre for Communication, Media and Society (CCMS),
University of Kwa-Zulu Natal
April 2012
‘Durban as a Film City’ Project: A collaborative UKZN and Durban Film Office (DFO) partnership for researching the extent of Durban’s ‘film-friendliness’
 
Durban’s film industry is made up of a series of interlinked and often measurable ‘film services’. Film services are processes without which a film industry would not function or grow. A cohesive network of such film services is what defines a city such as Durban as a ‘film city’. ‘Durban as a Film City’ is a 4 to 5 year collaborative primary research project being carried out by the Center for Communication and Media in Society (CCMS) at the University of Kwa-Zulu Natal in conjunction with the Durban Film Office, a division of the Economic Development Unit at the eThekwini Municipality. The purpose of the project is to map the film services that are at the heart of the city’s film industry. Mapping is a research activity by which we identify, or follow the footprints of, core features in the value stream or value chain of the film industry. The major objective of the mapping initiative is to establish Durban’s ‘film friendliness’, or a city’s favourable disposition towards film production. Such an exercise enables forecasting of developments in the audiovisual industry, based on an analysis of trends and drivers of change and competitiveness. In this case, film services are assumed to be the main drivers of change and competitiveness in the Durban film industry. This paper presents the findings of the first and second year of the ‘film cities’ collaborative research project. It uses the film services framework, an approach to studying film industries that delves deep into the guts of processes involved in developing film projects from input to output. Film services approaches are concerned with the skills, infrastructures, and networks that underwrite the capacity of a film industry in a region or locality to create and innovate. Researchers worry not so much ‘about film projects as about the skills, infrastructure, and network-base-supplying transient projects.’ In other words, the film services approach stresses, above everything, the importance of various film services providers. This collaborative project shows the way forward in terms of beneficial research partnerships between university departments and local municipalities. *Dr Nyasha Mboti is a post-doctoral research fellow in the Centre for Communication, Media and Society (CCMS) at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. He is the ‘Film Cities’ project leader along with Professor Keyan Tomaselli.
 
________________________________________
 
 
The Impact of the expanded Public Works Programme: A case Study of eThekwini Municipality
Ms NF Mkhize[UKZN] and Prof BC Mubangizi [UKZN]
 
This case study focuses on the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) within eThekwini municipality.  One of the goals of the EPWP as agreed upon in the Growth and Development Summit of 2003 is to increase the participation of unskilled and unemployed people in the economy of the country.  The Expanded Public Works Programme thus has the triple effect of providing employment to the unemployed, building the skills base of the unskilled and building public infrastructure of roads, schools and such public spaces.  
 
This case study sought to understand the conceptualisation and operation of the EPWP in the eThekwini Municipality. It attempted to establish the extent to which the beneficiaries of the EPWP have been able to sustain decent jobs beyond their involvement in the EPWP of the Municipality.  Against this backdrop, this case study draws conclusions showing how public officials and beneficiaries seem to have varying perceptions as to what the EPWP, does in fact, attempt to achieve. The study makes recommendations on how best to marry the dichotomous views and, in this way, ensure sustainable benefits for both public officials and project beneficiaries.
 
While the study was largely quantitative seeking to establish people’s views and perceptions on the programme, the study was enriched with one-on-one interviews which were held with selected officials so as to gain deeper understanding of the situation.
 
________________________________________
 
 
Professor E.A. Mantzaris ,Mrs. Pravina Moodliar And  Ms. S. Buthelezi  Mangosuthu University Of Technology
Univesity Activism , Rural Community Engagement, Research And Participation: A Proposed L.E.D.  Initiative For The ethekwini Municipality
 
The paper is structured as a combined  research proposal undertaken by a cooperative effort of eThekwini Municipality and MUT   that is rooted on   a combination of innovative theoretical and practical  interplays of community/research engagement that will positively affect local economic development a  specific rural  area within the eThekwini municipality. It is based on the dynamics of shared and cooperative knowledge creation and advancement through Community Engagement and participation where eThekwini and MUT  strive for research based and  applied LED utilising the historical and present roots of Indigenous Knowledge Systems with the latest scientific methods and applications of rural development .
 
Utilising  a progressive, hands-on , theoretical, and empirical scientific approach that has been tested in both developed and developing social and political environments the  outcome will create a common agency founded on collaboration ,understanding, ethical behaviour based on accountability, transparency and common goal achievement.
 
________________________________________
 
Ndwakhulu Tshishonga
REDUCING DEPENDNCY AND PROMOTING LOCALISED ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH CO-OP MODEL AT CATO MANOR: A COMPARTAIVE ADVANTAGE?
University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN); School of Built Environment & Development Studies, Howard College Campus. Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (031)-260 2822 (w), Mobile: 0722419933
 
 
This paper examines the comparative advantage of co-operative as a socio-economic model towards mitigating adverse effects of soaring poverty, escalating unemployment rate and gross inequalities in South Africa in places like Cato Manor, a township at eThekwini. Despite various government interventions ranging from CMDA (partnership between European Union, KZN Provincial government and Cato Manor Development Association) to Cato Manor -Area based Management (ABM) in the early 2000s, Cato Manor remains socially fragmented and economically vulnerable coupled with the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The information for this paper was obtained through the use of secondary sources (documentation, reports and submissions) and face-face interviews primarily with Cato Manor officials; official and ordinary members form the co-operatives themselves. The paper is sampled on ten (10) co-ops situated at Cato Manor. The author argues that the enactment of Co-operative Act (2005) demonstrates the state commitment to make use of alternative models to address socio-economic situation on one hand, while on the other hand the success of co-op in localising economic development and growing the local economy would depend on the genuine adherence and application of co-op principles. Contrary to the conventional capitalist economic models and approaches, co-operatives have an advantage over formal businesses especially in advancing local economic justice for the benefit of the poor through their active involvement.
 
Despite challenges relating business literacy, finding a niche market and marketing itself, the paper found that most the co-ops are resilient in reducing dependency syndrome and work towards interdependency between people themselves, the municipality and private sector. Evidence from the findings suggest that co-operatives have not been successful in enhancing social cohesion and greater co-operation among co-op members but have been instrumental in mobilising human capabilities to eliminate dependence on government for both social and economic development. Central to rekindling co-operative as vehicle towards encourage job creation, poverty alleviation and promoting a culture of saving, are the concept of social capital, co-operation and Ubuntu values and principles.
 
________________________________________
Jennifer Houghton
University Of Kwazulu-Natal, Graduate School Of Business And Leadership, Durban, South Africa (Staff Member At Ukzn)
Development In Context: An Exploration Of How Leaders, Locally Embedded Capital, And Networks Influence Durban’s Public Private Partnerships And Their Urban Interventions.
 
In examinations of development and transition in South African (and other) cities, causality is often ascribed to the external and the global, namely, neoliberalism; globalisation; positionality in a global urban hierarchy; and the overall effects of the North-South divide (Robinson, 2006).  While these processes and contexts are undeniably influential, opportunity remains for the adoption of a more ‘internally-focussed’ perspective. This study seeks to examine how urban development processes are formulated by, and enacted through, more localised conditions. By qualitatively examining two strategic public private partnerships in Durban, South Africa which have been instrumental in the implementation of large scale property development projects since 1999, this study highlights how the nature and productivity of development mechanisms are strongly rooted in the context of Durban and South Africa. In particular, the important role of the leadership; the involvement of locally embedded capital; and the networks which work to facilitate development and the process of partnering itself, are brought to the fore as influential aspects of the development process. Finally, the analysis presented reflects on the potential of localised inputs such as these to supercede, mitigate or alter the ways in which ‘external’ processes such as neoliberalism are interwoven with development processes in the city. 
Keywords: public private partnerships, local conditions, urban development, leadership, capital, networks
________________________________________
 
Linda Mbonambi, INK Region, eThekwini Municipality, Durban, South Africa
Local Economic Development (LED) or Community Economic Development (CED): A case of the Inanda, Ntuzuma, KwaMashu (INK) region of eThekwini Municipality, Durban
Nompumelelo Thabethe, Department of Community Development, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
 
Post-1994 development discourse emphasises the integration of social and economic development imperatives in South Africa.  Local Economic Development (LED) has been conceived of as a panacea for poverty alleviation. However, LED initiatives often adopt a localised, projectized and piece-meal approach to development. Drawing on empirical evidence from the INK region, this paper seeks to unpack lessons learnt in the incorporation of LED and Community Economic Development (CED) in bold, systemic change efforts to create a high performing urban space through greater emphasis on broader economic development.  Data collection methods consist of observations and documentary review.  The paper begins with conceptualisations of LED and CED within and outside a planning framework.  It identifies factors which either promote or hinder LED and those that have enabled CED in a city building process in the INK region.  Generally, the findings reveal that economic development is not a linear process, but is rather multi-dimensional in nature. Whilst LED is offered as a blueprint for economic development, local entrepreneurs use a continuum of strategies to secure livelihoods within a CED framework.  The paper concludes with lessons for best practice to create spaces for economic opportunities and development beyond the narrow LED focus.
Key words: local economic development, community economic development, poverty alleviation, systemic change, INK region, livelihoods security
 
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Presenter:  Dr MANDUSHA MAHARAJ
Institution: Durban University of Technology
(Department: Marketing Retail & Public Relations Faculty: Management Sciences)
TITLE:
Blending the digital divide at Durban University of Technology with a blended learning model for marketing students: A case study at the eThekwini campus
 
Orientation: Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) cling on to traditional classroom structures?  Since the student has changed, the learning environment should adapt accordingly. Higher education is not about teaching, it is about learning. All students are expected to learn at the same rate in the South African educational system. However, learners have different abilities and talents and learn at different paces and the Durban University is no exception.
 
Purpose of study: The purpose of this study is to explore the use of the e-learning as supportive instructional tool to improve the quality of assessment (research reports) submitted by students to obtain a Bachelor’s Degree in Technology in the Marketing discipline. 
 
Research design:The blended learning approach was developed from secondary sources followed by action research. Action research is designed to address complex, practical problems about which little is known.The pilot activity was undertaken as a learning exercise.
 
Sample selection: Applied Promotion 4 part-time registered B Tech Marketing students participated in the project.
 
Instrument: Structured interviews were conducted with eleven students during the different phases of the project.
 
Results: Blackboard online classroom learning tool was preferred by students because they could focus on the task on hand better in the on-line classroom which was not confined to specified lecture periods.
 
Conclusion:Both stakeholders (learners and lecturers) should work together to design the online class.  The curriculum for learning should be learner centered and not teacher driven. Since online classrooms definitely need LANs, which is an ongoing problem,online lessons are currently possible with post-graduate students due to the limited resources. All university studentsshould be encouraged to use their computer technological skills to become smarter and work effectively instead of efficiently.
 
Key terms:Blackboard online learning, Blended learning, action research, teaching and learning, e-learning
 
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Dr Clive Coetzee
General Manager:  Infrastructure Management and Economic Services
KZN Provincial Treasury
Economist (PhD UKZN)
Paper Submission -  City Economic Integration in KwaZulu-Natal – A Possible Growth Policy
 
The province of KwaZulu-Natal is located in the southeast of South Africa; it borders three other provinces and the countries of Mozambique, Swaziland, and Lesotho, along with a long shoreline on the Indian Ocean. The province covers a land area of 93,378km² or 7.65 per cent of the total land area of South Africa.  There are at present about 10.8 million people residing in the province or about 21 per cent of the total national population.  The province has a population density of almost 109 people per km², significantly less than the 602 people per km² recorded in the Gauteng province, but significantly greater than the 48 people per km² recorded in the Mpumalanga province.
 
The province of KwaZulu-Natal recorded a gross domestic product (at constant 2005 prices) of almost R311 billion during 2011 at an annual real growth rate of 3.32 per cent.  The province contributes on average between 16 per cent and 17 per cent to the national gross domestic product, significantly less than the 35 per cent of the province of Gauteng but slightly more than the 15 per cent of the province of the Western Cape.  The annual growth rate of the province has to a large degree followed the national growth rate suggesting the growth dynamics of the provincial economy is fundamentally dependent by or exhibit significant convergence with the national economy.
 
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MUNICIPAL APPROACHES TO INCORPORATING THE INFORMAL ECONOMY
INTO THE URBAN FABRIC
Tasmi Quazi
University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Development Studies, Durban, South Africa
Glen Robbins: Robbinsg@ukzn.ac.za; 082 496 9396
 
The study explores the emerging notions of a developmental approach towards theinformal economy within urban governance. Using the case-study methodology to draw a comparative analysis between Msunduzi Local Municipality and Hibiscus Coast Municipality respectively, the study highlights various key challenges facing the development of the informal economy in South Africa. The qualitative study entailed engaging key stakeholders, primarily municipal actors, involved with managing and developing the informal economy in their regions. The findings reveal that although there has been a slight shift towards a developmental approach, local government lacks adequate institutional arrangements, and is characterized by an underdeveloped policy and legislative environment with regards to addressing the dual objectives of poverty alleviation and economic development through the informal economy. This has been furtheraggravated by the wider struggles of urban elites, political interests and informal traders’ agencies, competing to influence urban development and policy for their preferential gains. These factors have led to unstructured, uneven and uncoordinated interventions; and are limiting alternative urban configurations that meet and synthesize the diverse needs of both formal and informal actors within a hybrid economy. Consequently, there is a need for aligned national, provincial and local government policy and legislative frameworks which outline clear implementation plans and mechanisms. This includes the coordination and integration of interventions at the
local level as a multi-disciplinary approach. However, these need to be driven by a deeper democratization process which attempts to overcome the barriers to more deliberative policy making and implementation.
 
Key words: informal economy, informal trading, urban governance, urban policy, urban planning, local government
 
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Dr MANDUSHA MAHARAJ &MISSSAMKELE VUYOKAZI MIZPHA KONYANA
Supervisor: Dr MANDUSHA MAHARAJ
Institution: Durban University of Technology
(Department: Marketing Retail & Public Relations Faculty: Management Sciences)
PROMOTIONAL TOOLS AT SELECTED UNIVERSITIES IN THE TSHWANE METROPOLITAN REGION
 
Orientation: Due to the competitive environment, in the higher education landscape and limited financial resources, higher education institutions are forced to evaluate and review their marketing strategies in order to attract suitable qualified students.
 
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the promotional tools used by public higher education institutions in the Tshwane Metropolitan Region from a student perspective. Furthermore, the study focused on establishing whether the demographics of the students played a role with regard to the choice factors when selecting a higher education institution.
 
Research Method: An empirical study was conducted using a questionnaire adapted from Wiese (2008) study. Non probability sampling was used to select first year students from two public institutions in the Tshwane Metropolitan region.
 
Results: The results of this study show that students preferred higher education institutions to use personal communication for student recruitment. Social media was also revealed as one of the most important communication methods.Opendays and career exhibitions at both higher education institutions were also used.
 
Conclusions: The results provide marketing practitioners at all higher education institutions a guide to their respective promotional tools for student recruitment. The eThekwini region is no exception. The findings further revealed that students from diverse backgrounds and Provinces used different sources of information during their search for a higher education institution to enroll at.
 
Key terms: Promotionaltools, demographics of students,marketing strategies, personal communication, qualifications, quality of education, metropolitan region
 
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Ms Thandazile Mngomezulu
Dr Lolie Makhubu
THE ALLOCATION OF INTERPRETING AND TRANSLATION ASSIGNMENTS TO THE QUALIFIED PEOPLE
 
South Africa has 11 Official Languages which ought to that should be used for communication purpose wherever possible in South Africa while the KwaZulu-Natal province has four of these official languages. This Paper focuses on the role that needs to be played by the universities in KwaZulu-Natal, particularly the Durban University of Technology (DUT). It is proposed that the students from Department of Media, Language and Communication who have a qualification in the Translation and Interpreting Practice and Language Practice programmes ought to be used by the university accordingly. Therefore, it is argued that most official languages are used by students within the university but mainly one language is used as a medium of instruction within DUT. This paper attempts to address the matter that DUT can create jobs for their own graduates in order to allow the communication to be easier using suitably qualified people. South Africa’s Constitution gives an authority to its citizens to use the language of their choice and DUT has offered the programme to assure that the interpreting and translation services or jobs are done by such qualified people.
 
The paper accommodates Theme 2 as it is trying to address the issue of job creation within DUT, however; it also covers Theme 5 whereby it looks at the responsiveness of  the issue of Governance and in particular at DUT. 
 
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Theme 3 Working on Fire Programme  eThekwini
 
Municipality
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Bheka Nxele1*, Errol Douwes1 and Rael Hughes2
1Environmental Planning and Climate Protection Department, EThekwini Municipality
2Working on Fire
*Presenter: E-mail: NxeleB@durban.gov.za
 
EThekwini Municipality is responsible for the management of vast areas with diverse natural environments and also provides service delivery to nearly 4 million residents. Due to the very negative threats posed by invasive alien species (IAS) to local natural capital (ecosystems and biodiversity), the Municipality is required as dictated by NEMBA (Act 10 of 2004), to include plans for monitoring, control, and eradication of Invasive Alien Species (IAS) in its Integrated Development Plan (IDP). IAS not only reduce the ability of the land to support peopleand livestock, but can drastically interfere with natural ecosystem processes e.g.quantity and quality of water flow from catchment areas, soil stability, and even natural species migration patterns.
 
Rising CO2 levels, as is associated with climate change, can result in increased carbon fertilization of many broadleaf plants, which occurs as a result of their specific photosynthetic mechanisms. While this may sound beneficial the reality is that, a multitude of indigenous grassland species are now increasingly threatened by habitat transformation due to encroachment of woody plants. Active control of invasive alien plants and woody encroachers, through both mechanical means and burning techniques, is helping to address this concern. As invasive alien plants are known to consume large quantities of ground water, and their effective removal can ensure significantly higher water yields from important catchment areas. Site selection is aided by the City’s recently developed fine-scale Systematic Conservation Plan.
 
The municipality has recently (in 2009) appointed Working on Fire (WoF), a South African, government-funded organization to implement control of invasive alien species (IAS) in areas of critical biodiversity importance. The Municipal WoF programme now provides a numerous jobs to people who were previously unemployed. The accompanying training and skills development opportunities provided are an excellent means for the City to contribute to the South Africa’s national Green Economy objectives. The programme also generates much needed environmental and fire awareness for local communities and schools, and also creates a safe, healthy and secure environment in terms of fire hazards to people, properties and natural assets.WoF initiatives promote Local Economic Development both through direct job creation, as a result of ensuring a healthy, well-managed natural local environment.
 
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 Buffelsdraai Landfill Site Community Reforestation Programme - eThekwini Municipality
Errol Douwes1* and Nicci Diederichs2
1Environmental Planning and Climate Protection Department, EThekwini Municipality;
2Futureworks!PO Box 2221, Everton, 3625, Durban, South Africa; e-mail:nicci@futureworks.co.za
* Presenter: e-mail: douwese@durban.gov.za
 
The eThekwini Municipality’s Buffelsdraai Landfill Site Community Reforestation Project was initiated in November 2008 in anticipation of creating a carbon sink to help offset the CO2 emissions (declared as 307,208 tons CO2 equivalent) associated with Durban’s hosting of several 2010 FIFA© World Cup matches. This project involves “reforestation” of a 757-hectare buffer zone of the municipality’s Bufflesdraai Regional Landfill Site. The area was originally a mix of forest and woodland but was cleared many years ago for sugarcane production. That industry has now declined in economic viability. Indigenous trees are grown by “Treepreneurs,” local members of the surrounding Osindisweni, Buffelsdraai, Ndwedwe, and KwaMashu communities who establish small-scale indigenous tree nurseries at their homes. Tree seedlings are exchanged for credit notes, which can then be traded for food and other basic goods, or are even used to pay school fees. Periodic trading with the credit notes at “Tree Stores” takes place in each of the participating communities.
 
To date, the project has engaged 583 Treepreneurs—75 percent of whom are women and 19 percent of whom are youth—and approximately 276,167 trees have been planted in an area of 240 hectares. The Buffelsdraai Landfill Site Community Reforestation Project has demonstrated that reforestation can provide direct socioeconomic benefits to surrounding communities and enhance biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Socioeconomic benefits include increased education and food security and improvement of community livelihoods. Ecological benefits include enhanced biodiversity refuges, water quality, river-flow regulation, flood mitigation, sediment control, visual amenity, and fire-risk reduction. Since its inception, the project has created a total of 314 jobs (23 full-time, 10 part-time, and 640 temporary) for local community members.
 
The Buffelsdraai Landfill Site Community Reforestation Project is an initiative of eThekwini Municipality, which administers the city of Durban. In 2011 the project was recognized by the United Nations as one of ten “lighthouse projects”—projects in developing countries that help put the world on a more climate-resilient and low-carbon path while also improving people’s lives.
 
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Dr Andrew A. Mather
COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT AND RISING SEA LEVELS
 
The Integrated Coastal Manageemnt Act has introduced requirements for better coastal zone management. The Act requires various levels of government to implement this Act. In this presentation the focus will be on the municipal interventions using examples of the current work being undertaken within eThekwini.
 
Sea levels, due to global warming and climate change, are on the rise around the South African coastline.  Recent work has shown that the current rate varies around the coastline and adopting a global sea level rise figure would be incorrect as the Southern Hemisphere is not warming as fast as the Northern Hemisphere.  At a local level, some municipalities (Durban, Port Elizabeth, Overstrand and Cape Town) have completed work on modelling the impacts of sea level.  However each has adopted a different methodology.
 
This adhoc approach to planning for sea level rise is mainly due to the fact that South Africa has not adopted or agreed a figure / range of figures for sea level rise into the future.  This has the unfortunate consequence that outputs from these projects cannot be directly compared and so at a government level it is impossible to objectively assess each cities vulnerability. 
 
In this presentation we will:-
 Review the recent historial sea level research.
 Review the rates of current sea level globally and in South Africa.
 Recommend a South African national set of SLR planning scenarios.
 Develop a SLR planning framework based on risk, value and life of coastal assets.
 
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Student Research and Service-Learning for Community Enhancement: Case studies
Dr Angela James (Designation – UKZN Staff)
University of KwaZulu-Natal  - College of Law and Management Studies, Teaching and Learning unit
 
The Biological Science for Educators module in the School of Education, on Research and Service-Learning is essential for the sustainable development of all stakeholders. Biological Sciences student teachers participate in a module where they learn about Research and Service-Learning . This learning is then enacted on when students are placed in various placement sites, for example Ethekwini Water, Durban Solid Waste and the Botanic Gardens.   The focus of the module is on students’ developing and conducting research on their Service-Learning in the particular placement sites.  The theoretical framework used focused on the real aspect of learning and it provides specifics about the nature of the problem. Authentic learning requires real life problems; active learners, the achievement of an outcome and experiential learning in a real context. A qualitative, interpretivist, case study research design was used to explore the student’s action. Data collection methods included observation of site visits and student teacher action, student teacher reflective diaries, student teacher research reports and researcher observation notes. The data revealed that students teachers’ and the organisation (community) were engaged in community enhancement actions, in responding to the needs of the community. Most importantly the knowledge and actions undertaken by the student teachers in a collaborative participatory manner were essential for the further development of the organisation.
 
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Title: Microbial Population Database- A Tool for Evaluating Bnr Processes In Kwazulu Natal
SK Sheena Kumari, Kriveshin Pillay, Nashia Deepnarain and Faizal Bux*
Institute for Water and Wastewater Technology, Durban University of Technology, P.O. Box 1334, Durban, 4000, South Africa, Tel: +27 31 373 2346, Fax: +27 31 373 2777, Email: sheenas@dut.ac.za
 
Activated sludge wastewater treatment plants are the most used wastewater treatment system worldwide. These are highly organized systems that depend on a synergy between microbial population, plant configurations and operating parameters. The microbial populations comprise primarily of functional groups of organisms such as ordinary heterotrophs that facilitate COD removal and denitrification, nitrifiers that facilitate nitrification, phosphate accumulating organisms that are responsible for biological phosphate removal and filamentous bacteria that are responsible for the formation of the core of the floc in activated sludge process. In order to ensure optimal operation, process optimization and trouble shooting, it is crucial to understand the structure and function of the microbial communities and the factors controlling their composition and activity. Implementation of modern high throughput techniques like fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for measuring microbial community composition in complex environment samples is receiving much attention worldwide. Two wastewater treatment plants were currently investigated on weekly basis to gather the utmost data to learn more about the plant performance and the microbial population present in these two plants during the time of sampling. Besides the general information about plant design and configuration, more specific and time-related plant operation data were also collected. The seasonal trends in the microbial composition and the correlation of the microbial trends to the process parameters were also studied in detail using 16S rRNA based fluorescent in situ hybridization. The database generated during this study constitutes a powerful tool in explorations of shift in functional microbial community present in these two wastewater treatment plants.
 
Key words: Activated sludge floc, Fluorescent in situ hybridization, Microbial database, Nitrification, Wastewater treatment plants, 16S rRNA
 
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An argument for the use of rain water harvesting as a national resource saving strategy
*Mutanda T, Robinson H & Bux F.
Institute for Water and Wastewater Technology, Durban University of Technology, P.O. Box 1334 Durban 4001, South Africa. *Author for Correspondence: tauraim@dut.ac.za; faizalb@dut.ac.za
Telephone: + 27 31 373 2346; Fax: + 27 31 3732777
 
Rain water harvesting is a cost-effective strategy of ensuring water security thereby averting dire anthropogenic consequences in South Africa. The over reliance on municipal water supplies while ignoring other water sources will ultimately cause a major water supply shortage if other reliable water sources are not scientifically investigated. The frequent shortages of portable water in some sections of South Africa are mainly exacerbated by the lack of capacity to meet the day to day water needs of these communities. The impact of the introduction of the rain water harvesting strategy will positively affect South African people including employment creation. Our latest findings suggest that current protocols as applied to treated water can also be effectively applied to harvested rain water.  Rainwater samples obtained from sites around KwaZulu Natal were subjected to routine tests to compare properties of treated and untreated rain water. It was envisaged that rainwater may be improved by the removal of suspended particles despite the rain intensity or volume. Our preliminary findings indicate that bio-filtration of rain water can significantly improve the organoleptic as well as the microbiological and physico-chemical properties of the water. Consequently, rain water harvesting for domestic use as a complimentary water source has the potential to save and augment the national water resources. The technology to improve the rain water quality was developed and comprised of zeolite within an intermittent flow bio- filter.  Zeolite is known for its metal and pathogen removing properties due to its refined structure. Zeolite bio-filtering has benefit over conventional sand filtering in that it has the capacity to remove harmful metals and pathogens. In the search for good quality drinking water, it is acknowledged that maintenance and water diversion play a key role in rain water quality. A patented filter simplified for manufacture without electricity requirements, that is fully automatic, eliminates the required roof maintenance and improves water storage tank hygiene is used for the removal of bacteria carrying solids. However strong evidence suggests that untreated rain water may be ingested with no detrimental effects to the community. We present an outline of the possible benefits that rain water harvesting may have on the National Water Resource Management effort. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a biofilter for treating rain water harvested in KwaZulu Natal.
 
 
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Environmental and Technical Evaluation of the Dual Use of Microalgae for Municipal Wastewater Bioremediation and Sustainable Biofuel Production
Theme 3: Natural Environment, Climate Change, Water and Energy
*Mutanda T and Bux F.
Institute for Water and Wastewater Technology, Durban University of Technology, P.O. Box 1334 Durban 4001, South Africa. *Author for Correspondence: tauraim@dut.ac.za
Telephone: + 27 31 373 2346; Fax: + 27 31 3732777
 
Microalgae are ideal candidates for biofuel production, supplementary food and feed products, bioremediation of wastewaters and climate change mitigation through CO2 sequestration. Unique microalgae also synthesize a wide array of primary and secondary metabolites which can have some biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications. South Africa has a rich microalgal biodiversity which has the potential to be used for renewable biofuel production in the region. Bioprospecting for oleaginous microalgae in KwaZulu Natal Province, South Africa, resulted in the establishment of a microalgal culture collection system for alternative energy research in the region. Microalgal strains were collected from diverse aquatic habitats in KwaZulu Natal Province using standard protocols. After a stringent screening exercise a hyper-lipid producing microalgal strain was isolated, purified, and cultured in supplemented postchlorinated wastewater for biomass and lipid production at laboratory scale under batch mode. Biomass concentration 1g/L and lipid yields of 18-35%, w/w were obtained using municipal domestic wastewater streams as substrates under laboratory conditions. The lipids were transesterified into biodiesel and glycerol using conventional procedures. The utilization of commercial media for microalgal growth is expensive and economically unfeasible. It is envisaged that municipal domestic wastewater streams will serve as cheap and readily available substrates for cost-effective and sustainable microalgal cultivation at large scale for the production of biodiesel and spin off products. In addition, algal technology can be used for tertiary treatment of wastewater streams i.e. removal of residual nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates. A preliminary investigation has demonstrated the efficacy of post-chlorinated municipal wastewater rich in macronutrients as a potentially superior medium for microalgal growth and biomass accumulation. Current research thrust are now focused on developing and optimizing the technology for large scale application in collaboration with Ethekwini Municipality at Kingsburgh Wastewater Treatment plant using a 300 000 L demonstration raceway pond.
 
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Derek Morgan – eThekwini Municipality Energy Office
“Addressing the Challenges of Energy Efficiency Demand Side Management - A Municipal Perspective.”
 
There is increasing pressure on South African municipalities to play an active role in energy efficiency demand side management (EEDSM). This is driven by national energy reduction requirements, but increasingly by national greenhouse gas reduction targets and the risk of carbon tax on municipal operating budgets.
 
However, implementing EEDSM within the municipal context is not without its challenges. In the eThekwini Municipality some of the major challenges that need to be addressed can be summarized as follows:
 
1. There is no clearly articulated and over-arching approach and methodology for energy management,
2. There is no centralised institutional structure within the municipality that is responsible for internal energy use and, therefore, no coherent approach to monitoring and management of energy use,
3. There are no clearly articulated incentives to save energy or implement energy saving programmes, and
4. There is a lack of accurate baseline data for energy use across most infrastructures operations. 
In order to address these challenges the eThekwini Municipality has embarked on drive to institutionalise EEDSM within the municipal operating environment. This “institutionalisation” of EEDSM will see line departments becoming directly responsible for energy savings from their operations.
 
This approach has resulted in a number of innovative programs being implemented within the city infrastructure. Once the savings and benefits are quantified, these programs have the potential to be adopted by the broader business and community sectors. This will ultimately result in a coordinated effort to reduce energy and carbon emissions throughout the metro.
 
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A LOW COST PARABOLIC SOLAR WATER HEATER SUITABLE FOR DOMESTIC USE
HW Bernhardt1, N Brijmohan, A Mootheram
 School of Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu Natal (UKZN), Durban, South Africa
Supervisor: 1Dr HW Bernhardt, School of Chemical Engineering, UKZN, Durban, South Africa : bernhardth@ukzn.ac.za, alternate: bernhardtw@telkomsa.net
 
A solar heater which uses a parabolic reflector trough made from stainless steel sheeting and a stainless steel radiation collector is described. Data is presented from tests which compare actual energy captured with solar insolation received on the dates of the tests. An approximate raw material costing is given. The construction of the device is relatively simple and the device is suitable for manufacture in workshops requiring low capital infrastructure. The materials of construction are readily available and durable. Assembly and installation do not require high level technological skills.  The tests show that a perspex shield improves the efficiency of radiation capture due to reducing heat losses caused by wind turbulence on the surface of the collector. The device is designed in such a way that once it has been appropriately installed it does not have to be moved to track the movement of the sun. Its use is intended for rural and urban communities.
 
Keywords: solar water heater, energy, parabolic heater
 
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POTENTIAL AMOUNTS OF BIOMASS AVAILABLE FOR BIOREFINERY PROCESSING IN SOUTH AFRICA
 
Ntandoyenkosi Malusi Mkhize, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 359 Mazisi Kunene Avenue, Glenwood, Durban, South Africa;
Supervisor: Prof. Bishop Bruce Sithole,CSIR, PO Box 17001, Congella, Durban, South Africa. Tell: +27(0)312422325, e-mail: bsithole@csir.co.za.
 
A successful strategy against climate change requires a strong reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions.  Biomass contributes towards this as it is renewable, and is permanently produced by green plants all over the world.  We have compiled a report of types and quantities of South African biomass that can be used for biorefinery processing operations and help in greenhouse gas mitigations.  The available biomass is classified into four main sources: i) agriculture (animal dung, field crops, and horticulture); ii) aquaculture/fisheries (marine and freshwater); iii) forestry and iv) other (a “catch-all” class that includes alien species, alien invasive species and urban waste).
An example of application of the biorefinery process is generation of high value chemicals from forestry waste biomass, such as the production of fuels from wood biomass.  We have studied the production of biodiesel from tall oil, a by-product of the chemical pulp processing operations. Our studies indicate that solid acid catalysis of tall oil is effective in converting the tall oil components into biodiesel in high yield.  Parameters that needed optimisation will be discussed and the economics of the process will be discussed also.  The production of biodiesel will help to reduce dependence on fossil fuels.
Keywords: biodiesel, biomass, biorefinery, catalysis, tall oil
 
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Pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) - a very useful tool for analysis and characterisation of organic materials in water samples
Bruce Sithole
Director, Forestry and Forest Products Research Centre
University of KwaZulu-Natal/CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment
Durban 4013
South Africa
Tel:  27 31 242 2325; Cel:  27 76 382 6337
 
Pyrolysis techniques involve the application of thermal energy to induce the transformation or degradation of compounds.  The techniques can be divided into two types: applied and analytical.
 
Applied
• Is concerned with the production of chemicals, e.g., the pyrolysis of coal to generate oil.
 
Analytical
• Deals with the structural identification and quantitation of pyrolysis products with the ultimate aim of establishing the identity of the original material and the mechanisms of its thermal decomposition.
 
The pyrolysis can be done by:
• rapid heating (flash pyrolysis)
 
• temperature-programmed heating (slow pyrolysis) of polymeric compounds.
 
We have a Py-GC/MS that we are using to analyse and characterise organic compounds.  We are using  to use to analyse various types of organic contaminants in potable and effluent water streams. 
 
This presentation will demonstrate how the technique is used, illustrating its capabilities and advantages.
 
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Name: Refiloe Ntoi
Title: A Systems Approach to Ecosystem Management in Hazelmere, South Africa
POSTER PRESENTATION
 
The study is based in Hazelmere, in the North Coast of Durban, in South Africa. Hazelmere. It is aimed at executing a systems approach in order to ensure an effective, holistic management of the ecosystem of the Hazelmere catchment. The catchment is characterized by polluted water systems, intensive soil erosion patterns, some discrete grazing activities and extensive sand-mining activities. The Mdloti River situated in the catchment is becoming highly silted with sand from soil eroding from the catchment and from the sand-mining activities. The water quality of the Hazelmere Dam is therefore becoming compromised at an alarming rate.
 
The study aims to examine how the social aspects of the system impact on the water and environmental status of the catchment. The study is aimed to merge both the technical (scientific) and social aspects of environmental degradation of the area. An observational field assessment is conducted in order to unpack both social and environmental impacts in the catchment. Technical laboratory assessments are done in conjunction with community interview sessions. The analysis based on the results attained from both laboratory and field assessments will similarly be integrated into a holistic environmental catchment management plan for Hazelmere.
 
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  Theme 4 - Rural Development and Agrarian Reform
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IMPACT OF WATER SCARCITY ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT:
A CASE STUDY OF INCHANGA
PRESENTERS : OLAYEMI BAKRE and PROF NIRMALA DORASOMY
INSTITUTION : DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY,
DEPARTMENT : PUBLIC MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMICS,
CITY  : DURBAN
COUNTRY : SOUTH AFRICA
SUPERVISOR : PROFESSOR NIRMALA DORASAMY (nirmala@dut.ac.za)
 
Section 27 (1)a of the South African constitution states that every South African has the right of access to water. This implies the constitution does not favour rural or urban settings, it gives everyone equal rights. Is this act of the constitution justifiable?
Due to the competition of insufficient water among several sectors in eThekwini, those residing in rural areas have been marginalized which has worsened their poverty stricken conditions.Demand for water for agricultural purposes, domestic usage as well as industry has rapidly increased over the last few years. Yet water is becoming scarcer due to climate change, invasive water plants, ageing infrastructure and unabated population growth.
 
This study was conducted in Inchanga, which is situated in the western region of eThekwini.Water scarcity has been one of the factors hindering development in this rural location. The lack of sufficient water has negatively affected their standard of living, caused waterborne disease and also led to the inability to produce sufficient food and cash crops.
 
The traditional and elected leadership has to be more proactive to give Inchanga the much required support to elevate their present poverty status. For this good reason, a deep investigation relating to water scarcity and economic development was under studied, thus providing a framework for analyzing the affected rural area, with the objective of making some plausible recommendations.To arrive at these recommendations, an expert from Department of Water Affairs was consulted. Also significant questions were asked from people of Inchanga.
 
Insufficient water for domestic and agricultural purposes has denied Inchanga the ability to unleash its agricultural industrial potential. Developing it will enable her to feed its people satisfactory and also export to other province. If agricultural productivity of water is significantly increased, it will greatly reduce scarcity by giving privileges to the less privileged farmers, and with a poverty focus, it will have an inverse effect on their standard of living.
 
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Banana Pyramid scheme in Umlazi (MUT)
D. Pons
"Pons, Dave" Dave@mut.ac.za
 
Food is becoming increasingly expensive and nutritional disorders are prevalent in the low income communities. The eThekwini area is fortunate to have a high rainfall , good temperatures and fertile soils however there is little evidence of household agriculture in this region.
 
In rural development there is a common aim to provide food and employment for the many people who survive on government social grants.
 
The methods used in this project use the pyramid scheme methodology whereby planting material is given to a household and after one year , they are to pass on plant material to another household for no charge.
 
The satellite imagery show that most households in the area now grow good healthy bananas.
 
The current available area is almost saturated with banana plantations and the residents of other local areas have requested to have the same scheme implemented in their areas.
 
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Theme 5 - Fostering Governance and Local  Government
 
Responsiveness
________________________________________
 
BongumusaZondo
Corporate Policy Unit
eThekwini Municipality
Engaging Children on What Matters the most is not Childrens’ Play–Lessons from Glenwood and Lovu
 
It is now common knowledge that nothing should be done to improve livelihoods of citizens without them being actively involved in the process. In the case of our 18 year old democracy, public participation is a legislative requirement for all spheres of government. The current legislative context does not only emphasise public participation but it goes further to elaborate on the process and form of structures. Municipalities as the sphere of government closest to people has a very crucial role to play in creating suitable, non-threatening spaces for meaningful engagement of communities. This calls for multi-approaches both formal and informal engagement.
It is interesting to note that our legislative environment seems not to provide any guidance on the consultation of children and of course this is acceptable because they are still under parental / guardian guidance and could not make any legitimate decision without their parents or guardians taking full responsibility of decision. EThekwini Municipality through its Imagine Durban Project has made some conscious decision to engage children on a number of its initiatives; however this paper looks at engagement on two initiatives namely revitalisation of parks, Bulwer Park and in small scale low cost intervention in Lovu. It is worth noting that both initiatives are demonstration projects.
Interesting lessons were learnt in both processes. This paper aims to share the lessons and to a particular degree assess the relevance of the engagements.
 
________________________________________
 
 
The urban/rural divide in local government in South Africa: The case of Jozini Local Municipality
Bheki R. Mngomezulu
Research Coordinator
Durban University of Technology (DUT)
 
The historic1994 general elections marked an apogee in the tedious and long drawn-out struggle for liberation in South Africa. Since then, giant and discernable strides have been made in terms of enhancing social equity and cohesion in many respects. One way of achieving this pivotal goal has been by ensuring that government, especially local government, remains constantly responsive to the needs of the electorate as part of enhancing democracy and entrenching the democratic ethos in society. This is commendable. But sadly, by and large rural communities have received a raw deal ad infinitum and have thus not yet reaped the fruits of democracy as their urban counterparts. Rural development has either moved at a snail’s pace at best, or has become conspicuously non-existent at worse. This is irrefutably an antithesis of democratic practice. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the plight of communities living under the Jozini Local Municipality as a way of demonstrating the evident rural/urban divide which is evident in post-apartheid South Africa. The paper draws from studies conducted in this Municipality by the present author between 2009 and 2011. These studies included surveys, interviews, focus group discussions, direct observations and document analysis. The findings reveal that almost eighteen years since the country became a democracy, rural communities such as those living under the Jozini Local Municipality continue to live under adverse conditions and abject poverty. Drawing from the research conducted in this area the paper makes concrete recommendations on the way out of this dilemma.
 
Keywords: Local government, poverty, Jozini Local Municipality, rural development, South Africa.
 
________________________________________
 
PRESENTER: MR L.F NTULI
TITLE: COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PLAN WITH REFERENCE TO INANDA TOWNSHIP IN THE PROVINCE OF KWAZULU-NATAL
INSTITUTION: MANGOSUTHU UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT: PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
CITY: DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA
SUPERVISOR: PROF R.S MASANGO
 
This study focuses on community participation in the implementation of the integrated development plan in Inanda Township in the Province of KwaZulu-Natal. The empirical part of the study was conducted on the Inanda, Ntuzuma, and KwaMashu area of the eThekwini Municipality.
 
Ward committees are forums for community participation in municipalities. They enhance participatory democracy at the local sphere of government. The main function of ward committee members include advising the ward councilors on policy matters that affect their respective wards, identifying the needs and challenges that face the wards, and communicating information to communities residing in those wards.
 
This study acknowledges the fact that, in terms of the policy framework, ward councillors are the chairpersons of their respective ward committees. The role of ward committees is to facilitate service delivery in their communities. The interviews were conducted with 40 Ward Committees of which 33 interviews were achieved and Councillors in ward 55,56,57 and 58 respectively. The researcher conducted a questionnaire-based interview with 40 local community members. In conducting this study both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies were used. However, the use of qualitative approach was more dominant.
 
This study also found that the efficacy of ward committees during the implementation phase of the IDP could be improved. Hence it recommends that the eThekwini Municipality must encourage local community members, ward committees and councillors to play their role during the implementation of the IDP.
 
________________________________________
 
 Qhubokuhle Dlamini <Dlaminiq1@ukzn.ac.za>
Abstract
Functions of our Local Government under the New Framework and Chapter 3 of the Constitution
 
South Africa comes from a culture of parliamentary sovereignty where parliament reigned supreme. The judiciary was seen to be independent however when it came to security legislation or any legislation that sought to realize a grand apartheid dream . One of the hallmarks of these pre-constitutional state affairs was that some tiers of government were more powerful than others so that there was no balance. In the post-apartheid situation our constitution, not only, delineates the powers of each sphere of government but it has elevated local government by making provisions in the selfsame constitution by ensuring that functions, duties and powers of municipalities are protected.
 
So for example, section 156(3) of the Constitution provides that “subject to section 151(4), a by-law that conflicts with national or provincial legislation is invalid”.  Section 151(4) provides that “the national or a provincial government may not compromise or impede a municipality’s ability or right to exercise its powers or perform its functions”. These provisions suggest that by-laws that conflict with national or provincial legislation will only be invalid if the national and provincial legislation complies with section 151(4). It is, therefore, important to determine the extent to which the national and provincial spheres are competent to pass legislation that deals with the local government matters listed in Schedule 4B and Schedule 5B. It is contended, in this regard, that municipalities have been given a more elevated status than the previous position. The way the court interprets legislation that will take account the principles of cooperative government as well as the structure envisaged in Schedule 4B and Schedule 5B.
 
This paper will look at the Municipal Structures as well as the new jurisprudence that is in line with the principles of Cooperative Governance and conclude that municipal structures ought to be better geared its new elevated status and role under the Constitution.
 
________________________________________
 
TOWARDS A MUNICIPAL INFORMATION SOCIETY: ETHEKWINI MUNICIPALITY’S Metro©onnect PROJECT
Presenter: Udo Richard Averweg
IT Project Manager, Information Services, eThekwini Municipality and
University of KwaZulu-Natal, P O Box 828, Durban, 4000
Telephone: 031 311-4935 (B)
Supervisor: None
 
Abstract: In the realm of local government, information and communication technologies (ICT) applications are promising to enhance the delivery of public goods and services (eServices) to households resulting in networks of interaction in society. An Information Society describes a society and an economy that makes the best possible use of new ICT. Proponents of the linkage between ICT and public service delivery tend to believe that they can utilise tools such as the Internet, World Wide Web and electronic Government (eGovernment) services to deal with local concerns. Increasing availability of ICT, such as eThekwini Municipality’s Metro©onnect project in the eThekwini Municipal Area (EMA), suggests the need for new collaborative initiatives between households, the public sector and civil society. In order to strengthen these networks of social interaction and to augment public service delivery in a municipal area, a framework for a Municipal Information Society (MIS) is proposed - this is the purpose of this article. It is argued with the Metro©onnect project, a MIS may evolve within the EMA. Whether one views the proposed MIS framework as a cup which is half full or half empty, it remains eThekwini Municipality’s social stakeholder responsibility to ensure that eService overflows. It is argued that social cohesion will be nurtured and social capital built. With the Metro©onnect project, shared meaning and the values of all stakeholders (eThekwini Municipality, households, the public sector and civil society) will be fostered which will serve to strengthen the networks of social interaction in a MIS in the EMA. (250 words)
 
Keywords: Batho Pele, Electronic Service Delivery (eService), Government 2.0, Metro©onnect project, Municipal Information Society (MIS), Public Service Delivery
 
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Creating, Leading and Facilitating Change – Institutionalisation of eThekwini Long-Term Development Plan
Bongumusa Zondo
Long-Term Development Planning Programme
eThekwini Municipality
 
EThekwini Municipality through its Imagine Durban Projects started a process of developing a long range sustainability plan for the Municipality in 2007. It is important to indicate that the Municipality had developed its long-term development framework in 2001. The process plan was developed and the vigorous process of engaging all sectors of the public, organized not organised started. This included surveys, face to face engagements, competitions and virtual engagement through blog and social networks. At the end of 2009, the final draft of the plan was presented to stakeholders for consideration and final input. The plan covered six broad thematic areas which emanated from visioning exercise. These are safety, sustainable livelihood, environmental sustainability, art and heritage, empowerment and care as well as accessibility. The plan was adopted by the council in June 2010.
 
It is about two years since the plan was adopted and the institutionalisation within the Municipality as an organisation as well within eThekwini Municipal Area has begun in earnest. The institutionalisation process is facilitated by Long-Term Development Planning Programme where Imagine Durban Project is housed. Since the beginning of the process, some interesting lessons started to emerge. These include but not limited to, never give up on people, accepting that the programme is not always going to be loved, prioritizing and staying focus, know your stakeholders and your players, territorialism and promotion of ‘server leader’ spirit. 
 
This paper explores this issues and look at how they can be used to fast forward the institutionalisation rather than delaying it.
________________________________________
INTEGRATING EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMMES WITH ORGANISATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR
Dr. Nobubele Potwana, School of MIG, University of KwaZulu-Natal
 Westville Campus, Durban.
Email:potwanan@ukzn.ac.za
 
A combination of technological advancement and politically induced transformation are rapidly changing the nature of work, presenting unprecedented challenges to both workers and managers alike. Along with these changes comes a high potential for psychological stress. However, it should be noted that stress does not exclusively emanate from work. Family problems such as divorce, social illnesses, drug addiction, alcohol abuse, uncontrolled gambling and a host of other personal worries have the capacity to adversely affect an employee’s work performance. When work performance is impaired, productivity suffers. This is when employee problems become organisational problems.
 
In the past, management assumed that work concerns and personal concerns existed in different spheres quite distinct from each other. They, however, later realised that the problems they had at work often time had a lot to do with problems outside work. These problems manifest themselves in poor work performance, something that organisations can no longer ignore. Thus many supportive service programmes for employees have been established. Organisations have come to realise that with the cost of recruiting and training new employees and with regard to the constraints of legislation in relation to the dismissal of employees, it is much more cost effective to rehabilitate employees who have problems rather than dismiss them and recruit new ones (Greer 1995). In addition, as Greer further posits, companies are coming to realise that in order to survive in today’s dynamic market, more emphasis needs to be accorded towards its human resources.  Redman & Wilkinson (2001) concur, stating that there is a major shift in perspective as organisations increasingly consider employees from an investment perspective, whereas prior to this, employees were seen more as variable costs of production than physical assets. In such a situation there would be little recognition of the organisation’s contribution to employee wellbeing and development.
 
In today’s market, having a superior product and efficient means of production does not translate into competitive advantage. The whole organisational structure has to be strengthened. Employees, who are the engine of this structure, have to be motivated and assisted to be loyal, helpful and prepared to go the extra mile in every task they perform. One of the methods used is to at least keep them as long as possible by implementing employee assistance programmes (herein after referred to as EAP) that help them cope.
 
The main question that this paper seeks to address is whether the assistance afforded to employees through EAP does induce organisational citizenship behaviour. The primary aim is to examine attitudes and perceptions of employees towards EAP. The secondary aim is to establish whether employees feel such gratitude towards the employer as a result of the assistance they are afforded, that they are willing to display Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (herein after referred to as OCB).
 
This study is being conducted at the eThekwini Municipality, which is the largest Municipality in the Province of KwaZulu- Natal. It is also the third largest Metropole in South Africa, with employees in excess of twenty thousand.
 
Like most organisations of this magnitude, this Municipality has a well-established department that takes care of employee wellbeing, aptly named the Wellness Department. Their key responsibility is to assist troubled employees to ensure that they are healed or rehabilitated. The Municipality uses a combination of the internal and external models (Smewing & Cox, 1998). It is external because the service providers are outside specialists who are contracted to provide the necessary services. To the extent that the Municipal offices are used for consultation, the model can be called on site or internal.
 
Key words: Employee Assistance Programmes, Organisational Citizenship Behaviour, Human Resources.
 
________________________________________
Dr Ivan G Govender
Department Of Entrepreneurial Studies And Management
Durban University Of Technology
Monitoring And Evaluation In Municipalites: A Case Study Of Kwazulu-Natal.
 
Legislation requires the performance of the three spheres of government to be monitored and evaluated. In this regard the government initiated a Government Wide Monitoring and Evaluation system, which has as its main aim to align and integrate the various policies, programmes and projects across the three spheres of government. However, the GWMES is not fully implemented.
 
Consequently, each of the provinces developed and implemented its own monitoring and evaluation systems while municipalities have not have yet implemented a Municipal Wide Monitoring and Evaluation System. Monitoring and Evaluation has been undertaken in a fragmented manner, focussing on departments and units within the municipalities. The aim of the study was to identify the role of monitoring and evaluation to enhance corporate governance in municipalities.
 
The case study approach was used and the questionnaire was mailed to sixty one municipal manager’s office within KwaZulu-Natal. Structured interviews were also held with staff involved in performance management in municipalities. The data from both the questionnaires and the structured interviews were analysed using the SPSS software to arrive at the recommendations and conclusions.
 
The study concluded that monitoring and evaluation enhances corporate and co-operate governance. Respondents highlighted the benefits of the monitoring and evaluation system and an overwhelming demand for the monitoring and evaluation. Finally, for the monitoring and evaluation initiative to be successful, political and administrative leadership, incentives and capacity development are essential.
 
________________________________________
Research Project Title: Municipal Internationalism in Metropolitan eThekwini
Principal Investigator: Dr F A Ruffin, University of KwaZulu-Natal
Mobile: 076 811 9595
 
Objectives of the Research Project:
 
For the first time in history the majority of the world’s human inhabitants live in urban areas and we are experiencing the globalisation of urbanisation. The fastest growing urban population is in Africa and Asia where local and metropolitan governance present complex issues and multi-faceted challenges. From the dawn of the (European) international system of states, only national government was involved in international relations. Today with the onset of globalisation, regionalisation, metropolitanisation and urbanisation, national governments are no longer sole actors on the international stage.
Just recently municipal governments, as autonomous actors in international relations, have been subjects of empirical studies. To date, those studies have primarily revolved around transnational municipal partnerships and transnational municipal networks of cities in Western Europe and North America – often in terms of North-South relations between the industrialised and developing or transitioning world. There is a lacuna of empirical investigation into the identification and outcome of municipal internationalism among African cities. More particularly there has been no academic inquiry into African municipal internationalism as it pertains to the emerging context of South-South cooperation on the journey to development. These are voids which this research seeks to help fill.
 
The overarching objectives of this study are:
 
1. To explore the internationalisation of eThekwini local government
2. To investigate how eThekwini municipality is becoming visible in global governance through formal and informal:
a. Transnational intercity relations such as ‘sister cities’ and ‘cross-border networks’ between municipalities
b. Interaction with regional and global organisations and institutions
c. Involvement with the construction or implementation of international law like environmental governance and human rights
 
________________________________________
 
PUBLIC SATISFACTION WITH SERVICES IN DURBAN
Brian O’Leary
eThekwini Municipality, Corporate Policy Unit
 
Since 1998 the eThekwini municipality has been conducting annual household surveys into public satisfaction with services and with their living conditions. These quantitative surveys are representative of the eThekwini population in terms of gender, employment status and race.  The sample size of 1200 households is determined at 95% confidence and 3% precision levels.   There are 40 sample areas and thirty interviews are conducted at each sample area. The sample areas are distributed proportionately within the urban core, periphery and rural areas and then the sample areas are randomly selected.  The distribution of the sample has ensured that interviews are conducted in informal settlements, rural settlements, townships and suburbs. 
 The broad components of the perceptions survey are:
• Housing
• Household Services
• Roads and Transport
• Residential Areas and Community Services
• Crime
• Billing and Communication
• Municipal Performance
• Personal Well-being
• Household Socio-economic Profile
This paper will discuss the following:
1)  The preparatory phase of the project including internal and external consultation with experts and with the eThekwini Council.
2) The sample size and the spatial distribution of the sample.
3) The development of the questionnaire and its revisions.
4) The results of the survey including recent trends.
 
Keywords:  quantitative research, public satisfaction, basic household services, municipal performance, personal well-being.
 
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Theme 6 – Health 
________________________________________
 
AMBIENT POLLUTION AND BIRTH OUTCOMES
1 K Asharam, 2 R Naidoo, 3 A Chuturgoon, 4 P Reddy
1,2Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 3Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 4Department of Community Health Studies, Durban University of Technology, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
 
Background and Aims:
 
Environmental and personal factors acting during pregnancy may result in adverse birth outcomes, and consequently ill-health in the growing infant. This pilot tested methods for sample selection, field instruments, biological testing and exposure assessment for a future birth cohort study investigating the association of respiratory health and ambient pollution.
 
Methods:
 
Pregnant women selected from public sector antenatal clinics in the industrially polluted south Durban (n=50) and the less industrialised, north Durban (n=50) were interviewed about their health status, obstetric history, exposure, smoking and nutritional history. Maternal tests for oxidative stress, allergy, atopy and genetic polymorphisms, together with cord blood for heavy metals and neonatal genetic testing, were conducted.  Birth outcomes were assessed at the time of delivery.
 
Results:
 
There was no difference with mean age among participants.  There was minimal evidence of chronic diseases, with prevalences of TB, asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, hypertension and diabetes less than 1%. There were three stillbirths and 8.7% low birthweight (LBW) (<2.5kg) newborns.  Unadjusted risks for LBW were increased for those living in South Durban (RR=3.5, 95% CI: 0.9 - 14.47) and those exposed to motor vehicle fuel or exhaust emissions (RR=3.8, 95%CI: 1.16-12.1). Biochemical evidence of oxidative stress did not vary between north and south (Malondialdehyde was 0.06uM and 0.07uM between north and south respectively, while mitochondrial depolarisation was 43.9% and 44.5% respectively). These markers were not associated with LBW. HIV status was not associated with LBW.
 
Conclusions:
 
This pilot study successfully tested methodological challenges in preparation for a birth cohort study investigating ambient pollution and respiratory outcomes. Although not a primary focus of the pilot, preliminary data analysis suggests environmental exposure related risks for low birthweight outcomes.Keywords:  Pollution, birth outcomes, pilot, exposure assessments, respiratory health
 
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Variations in Housing satisfaction and health status in Four Lower socio-economic Housing Typologies in a South African Metropolitan City.
Narsai P (1) , Taylor M (1), Jinabhai CC (1), Stevens F (2)
(1) Department of Public Health Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal,
School of Public Health Medicine,
(2) Department of Educational Development and Research, Maastricht University, Netherlands
 
A study in eThekwini amongst residents (n=300) of four lower socio-economic housing typologies: Reconstruction & Development houses (RDP), Informal Settlements (IS), Traditional Rural houses (TR) and Inner City apartments (IC) investigated the extent of their satisfaction about their housing and health. Respondents living in IC were most satisfied with their dwellings, those living in RDP houses and in IS were the least satisfied. People living in the IC perceived their health as best, while those living in IS perceived their health as worst. Major reasons for dissatisfaction with housing were pest infestation in their dwelling in the past twelve months, inadequate toilet facilities, high temperature, unclean neighborhood, poor ventilation and dust. Pest infestation and poor ventilation were mentioned most frequently by IC dwellers whilst RDP, IS and TR households complained about inadequate toilet facilities. For many people living in low socio-economic housing, both housing and service provision remain inadequate. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that perceptions of poor health status and inadequate housing for people living in eThekwini pose challenges. Measures need to be put in place to redress both the delivery of basic services and improve the adequacy of housing which could contribute to improved health status.
 
Keywords; lower socio-economic, housing typologies, built environment, basic service
 
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ASSESSMENT OF THE EXPERIENCES OF USERS OF THE FAST QUEUE
IN SELECTED PRIMARY HEALTH CARE FACILITIES,
IN THE ETHEKWINI MUNICIPALITY.
Dudu Sokhela
Nursing Department
Open House Annexe
2nd Floor
Tel: 031 373 2292
Fax: 031 373 2039
 
Comprehensive Primary Health Care (PHC) based on the principles of accessibility, availability, affordability, equity and acceptability (WHO, 1978) was introduced in South Africa to address inequalities in health service provision. Long waiting times and queues are a challenge in the PHC facilities. These contribute to dissatisfaction with the service and may lead to missed appointments and non compliance with treatment. In an attempt to actualize the goals of accessibility and availability and to address the long waiting times, the Fast Queue/Repeats program was implemented. While the Fast Queue has been instrumental in the promotion of access to health care, a major goal of PHC approach, it would appear that PHC facilities were not prepared for the sudden influx of clients.
 
The purpose of the study was to gain insight into the experiences of Fast Queue users in selected PHC facilities in the eThekwini Municipality in Durban. The objectives were to describe the experiences of the Fast Queue users and determine how their experiences led to satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the service.
 
Three quality attributes of Kano’s Model of Customer Satisfaction (Kano, 1984:1-2) namely; basic/threshold, performance and excitement, were used to guide the study.
 A qualitative design using content analysis was used to explore the experiences of the Fast Queue users in PHC facilities. A two stage sampling technique was used namely cluster sampling to sample clinics in the south, north and west  sub-districts and purposive sampling was used to select clinics and Fast Queue users. The same interview guide questions were used for both individual (n=76) and focus group (n=7) discussions. Data analysis was done in three stages namely description, analysis and interpretation. Findings highlighted both satisfaction and dissatisfaction with the Fast Queue. Overcrowding is a problem in health facilities and the Fast Queue is one strategy that is attempting to address it.  These findings can be used by healthcare administrators to build on the strengths of the Fast Queue and attempt innovations to addresses areas for improvement. The ongoing involvement of the Health Ministry is very crucial in supporting this endeavour.  
 
Key words: primary health care, fast queue, waiting time, patient satisfaction, patient flow
 
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HEALTH PROMOTION–EDUCATIONAL APPROACH
Presenter  :  Dr  NH  Gcabashe
Institution :  DURBAN UNIVERSITY  OF  TECHNOLOGY.  DURBAN - SOUTH  AFRICA
Contact      :   033-8458931  (W), 031-9041902  (H), 0837661452   (Cell)
 
INTRODUCTION
 
Health and safety Act 85 of 1993 endeavors to provide health and safe environment in all spheres of life.  There are different policies of health after 1994 which are loaded with approaches which promote health in our workplace and the community as a whole – each of which are focused on improving the health of an individual or the organization.
To be healthy means to be able to cope with and adapt to the changes going around us.  Health refers not only to our physical condition, but also to our state of mental and social well-being. Thus, health can be divided into two parts:
Environment, e.g air pollution, drugs, smoking and other.
Risks, e.g  chemical, laboratory apparatus, lifts or ramps to accommodate the physical challenge
 
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
 
To expose educators and the community at large to:
Occupational health and safety (OHS) which focuses on reducing hazards and work-related injuries or illness e.g.  Tubercolosis and Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Health promotion which gives people the tool to improve their health – these tools usually take the form of information or programmes.
Street-kids and how to improve their lives
Employee assistance programme (EAPs) and how to react to employees’ personal problems if/when these problems produce a negative impact in the workplace.
Organisation factors such as culture change, job design, work/life balance, relationships at work, etc.
The study is influenced by psychosocial development theories and cognitive development.
 
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
 
Qualitative approach has been used as a measure of data collection.
20 B.Ed. students (at 2nd year level) were interviewed at Durban University of Technology from different regions of KZN.  I randomly selected age between 26 and 34 who have been exposed to work situation.
2 Lecturers
2 Street-kids whose names cannot be disclosed for confidentiality purposes were interviewed.
 
________________________________________
Sheena Muttoo
A Framework For Land Use Regression Model Development To Determine Nox Exposure Among Pregnant Women In Durban - University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, Discipline of Occupational and Environmental Health, Durban, South Africa Supervisor: Prof. Rajen N. Naidoo – 031 260 4385 / naidoon@ukzn.ac.za
 
Keywords: Air pollution, exposure, land use regression, modelling, NOx and GIS
 
BACKGROUND
 
The characterization of exposure to air pollution, in determining exposure-outcome relationships, remains a challenge in environmental epidemiology. A promising technique that has recently emerged is the land use regression (LUR) model.  This model was initially pioneered in the SAVIAH study over a decade ago and hence has a fairly recent history in its application. Thus far, it has predominantly been applied in European and North American epidemiological studies and for the first time is being explored within a South African context.
 
OBJECTIVE
 
This study aims to develop a framework for LUR model development, within a South African context, with the intention of application in a subsequent study to determine NOx exposure among pregnant women in Durban, as part of a birth cohort pilot study.
 
METHODS
 
Model development comprises two key steps, i.e. determining pollutant concentrations either from an existing monitoring network or though passive sampling efforts and subsequently deriving geographic predictor variables within varying buffer distances around each of the sampling sites. This data is translated into a regression equation, which is applied within a geographical information system (GIS) framework, thus rendering a pollutant concentration map which provides information on exposure at unmonitored locations such as the participant homes.
 
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION
 
This study describes the basic principles of LUR model development and assesses potential predictor variables, for inclusion in the final model, that specifically relate to environmental conditions in the study area.  Hence a sequential framework for model development in Durban is presented for application in a future study.
 
________________________________________
 
 
Title: FACTORS INFLUENCING IMPLEMENTATION OF BASIC ANTE NATAL CARE PROGRAMME IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CLINICS IN ETHEKWINI DISTRICT, KWAZULU-NATAL
Presenter: Thembelihle Sylvia Patience Ngxongo  M Tech: Nursing
Durban University of Technology
Phone: 031 373 2609
Supervisor: M. N. Sibiya, D Tech
Durban University of Technology
 
In a move to alleviate the burden of consistently high maternal and perinatal mortality rate the South African National Department of Health instructed the adoption of the Basic Antenatal Care approach in all antenatal care facilities.  Whereas many facilities have begun the implementation of the BANC approach, in the eThekwini district, not all of the facilities have been successful in doing so.  The study was conducted in the Primary Health Care facilities that have been successful in implementing BANC in order to identify the factors influencing their success. Record review was done to identify the facilities.  The factors that influenced successful implementation of BANC were identified based on information obtained from the midwives. The sample size was comprised of 18 facilities and 59 midwives. The factors that were identified included: availability and accessibility of BANC services; Policies, Guidelines and Protocol; various means of communication; a comprehensive package of services and the integration of services; training and in-service education; human and material resources and the support and supervision offered to the midwives by the PHC supervisors. Other factors included BANC programme supervisors’ understanding of the programme and the levels of experience of midwives involved in implementation of BANC. There were, however, certain challenges and negative factors that were identified and these included: shortage of staff; lack of cooperation from referral hospitals; lack of in-service training; problems in transporting specimens to the laboratory; lack of material resources; lack of management support and the unavailability of BANC guidelines.
 
KeywordsBasic antenatal care, midwives’ perceptions and understanding of BANC, antenatal care approach, maternal death, perinatal death, midwife
 
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POOR POSTNATAL VISITS AT LOCAL PUBLIC SECTOR HOSPITAL
Firoza Haffejee(a),*, Miriam Adhikari(b), Niree Naidoo(c), Moganavelli Singh(d), and Jagidesa Moodley(e)
(a)Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa
(b)Paediatrics and Child Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
cNeonatal ICU, Prince Mshiyeni Memorial Hospital, Durban, South Africa
(d)Biochemistry, Genetics, and Microbiology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
(e)Woman’s Health and HIV Research Group, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
*Corresponding author: Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa. E-mail address: firozah@dut.ac.za
 
Medical and nursing staff conducting follow-up programmes, encounter major problems with a loss to follow-up.
 
This study examined the number of women attending a neonatal follow-up clinic at a large regional hospital to determine the rate of maternal to child transfer (MTCT) of HIV at six weeks after birth. Current standard of care at public sector hospitals includes antenatal testing for HIV, HIV virological testing for babies at 6 weeks post-delivery and anti-retroviral treatment for the HIV infected babies.
 
Primigravid pregnant women were recruited as part of a larger study during the antenatal period from the maternity unit of the Prince Mshiyeni Memorial Hospital in Umlazi, Durban between September 2009 and December 2010. Of these participants, 120 were HIV positive and 60 were HIV negative. Following delivery, all the participants were asked to bring the babies for a postnatal check up at six weeks.
 
Sixty seven percent (n=40) HIV uninfected and 33% (n=43) HIV infected participants returned for the six week postnatal visit. The rate of MTCT of HIV was 17% (n=5), however this was confounded by the low rate of follow-up visits.
 
This study demonstrates a lack of postnatal follow-up visits to the public sector hospitals. Awareness campaigns emphasising the importance of postnatal hospital visits is required so that all babies born to HIV infected mothers receive the standard of care provided at public sector hospitals. This is critical if the prevention of the MTCT programme is seen to be effective.
 
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LUNG FUNCTION IN A SELECTED eTHEKWINI COMMUNITY. Puckree T, Kohlrenken R. Durban University of Technology, Executive Deans Office, University of KwaZulu Natal, Department of Physiotherapy, Durban, South Africa.
 
Purpose:The purpose of the present study was to determine what proportion of a selected Durban population has normal lung function. Methods:A cross sectional population based survey with lung function measurements was conducted at a residential block of apartments in Durban. A stratified random sample of residents at the selected block of flats participated by fully informed consent. A Spirobank G was used to measure FVC, FEV1, and FEF 25-75. Body weight was measured using a calibrated bathroom scale and height was measured using a non elastic measuring tape. Demographic information about the participants was obtained using a questionnaire. Paired t-tests allowed comparison of measured values of the variables with age and height calculated normal values. Results: One hundred and fourteen participants completed the study. Fifty nine percent were female, 50% Indian, 71% did not smoke and 60% did not exercise. Overall less than 50% of the participants had normal lung function. In the group that considered themselves normal, 8% had normal FVC, 23%  normal FEV1 and 41% normal FEF25-75. Conclusion: It seems clear that in this population based study significant proportions of “normal people” are living with silent disease while the majority are symptomatic but not concerned.
Key words: lung function, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, forced expiratory flow
 
Supervisor:   Prof. T. Puckree Tel: 0313732967 Cell: 0833567695 E-mail: puckreet@dut.ac.za
 
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THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIOECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE HEALTH STATUS AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN OLDER PERSONS IN THE INANDA, KWAMASHU AND NTUZUMA AREAS OF THE ETHEKWINI MUNICIPALITY, SOUTH AFRICA.
B Cassim1, S Ramklass1, S Rauff1, B o’ Leary2, KP Mashige3, J Chipps4, C Martins5, J McIntyre6, N Shembe7, F Shamaan8, T Ezterhuizen9.
University of KwaZulu-Natal, Departments of Geriatrics1, Optometry3, Nursing4, Occupational Therapy6 and the College of Health Sciences9, eThekwini Municipality2 and the Africa Vision Research Institute5, the INK Area Based7 Management and the Association of the Aged8, Durban. South Africa
 
Aims: This study was undertaken to describe the health status, its interaction with socio-economic factors and access to and appropriateness of health care in community living older persons.
 
Methods: In an observational cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was administered by to 1008 participants aged≥ 60 years identified proportionately from each of the INK areas and from formal and informal houses using multistage stage sampling.
 
Results: The majority of subjects were between 60 and 69 years with a preponderance of women (77.3%).  96%were in receipt of a government pension which was the main source of income for most households. The median household size was 5 with a maximum of 20 persons.Almost three quarters of the households also had grandchildren and 38% received a child care grant. The majority of participants had access to a mobile telephone, radio and television and the commonest social activity was being a member of a church group.The commonest self-reported conditions were hypertension (65%), arthritis (29%), diabetes mellitus (20%) and backache (16%).  A risk of malnutrition was recorded in 49%, depression in 50% and suspected abuse in 14%.While 61% had a regular source of health care, subjects ≥85 years and those with a lower household income were less likely to have a regular health care provider. Health care was most often accessed at the local clinic doctor or nurse; however ambulance services, community health workers and prophylactic measures were not available to the majority.
Conclusions: This study confirms the high burden of chronic disease and poverty in older persons and the lack of appropriate prophylactic care. Public health care policies will need to include specific programs for older persons.
This study was supported by The South Africa Netherlands research Programme on Alternatives in Development (SANPAD)
 
Keywords Health  Ageing Socioeconomic status NCD  Nutrition 
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Mr Thabani Khumalo
Master of Technology degree student
Supervisor
Dr Lolie Makhubu
Durban University of Technology
Department of Media, Language & Communication
 
RESEARCH ON THE PROVISION OF INTERPRETING SERVICES IN THE MEDICAL SECTOR.
South Africa has eleven official languages and there is also a legislation that emphasizes that all languages should enjoy equal constitutional rights. However, South Africa proves to be the complete opposite of this legislation. As a result of the South African constitution, in critical institutions such as hospitals and clinics, language services are not provided effectively and sufficiently. Therefore the hypothesis of this research is that could it be that the indigenous monolingual speakers are possibly receiving inadequate medical help due to the inability to describe their medical conditions to the medical practitioners? Furthermore, the purpose of this research is to also establish why is that medical instructions and precautions for certain medication and dosages are only limited to Afrikaans and English. What then happens to the other indigenous language speakers who do not understand the languages written on these medical precautions are written in? Furthermore, international research has also proven that patients do not comply with treatment as prescribed by the medical practitioners; hence the researcher wishes to investigate this whether it is linked to communication breakdown.
 
This paper argues that the healthcare system may not be progressive if issues of languages are not properly addressed and action taken accordingly.
 
The paper mainly addresses theme 6 as it deals with access to health. Moreover it may address some issues of governance in theme 5 and lastly enhancing social equity which is theme 7.
 
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Theme 7 - Enhancing Social Equity
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Title: State of Mathematics, its related Sciences and Pure Sciences Education in the post-apartheid era.
Presenter: Mr. Dharam Singh
Institution: James Nxumalo Education Trust and UKZN: Innovation in Mathematics Joint Venture
Supervisor: Dr. Sudan Hansraj, Academic Leader of Mathematics, School of Mathematical Sciences, UKZN, Telephone: 031-260 1020, mobile 083232 4781, e-mail hansrajs@ukzn.ac.za
Purpose of Study
 
To understand, develop and implement interventions into the mediocre education standards in the disciplines of mathematics, its related sciences and pure sciences. To establish reasons as to why many students are opting for mathematical literacy instead of pure mathematics, and avoiding the pure science subjects at secondary and tertiary education levels.
 
Diagnostic Assessment
 
A group of students have been selected, predominantly from disadvantaged and indigent backgrounds.
These students have been interviewed and will be retrospectively requested to complete a questionnaire, which could not be done due to the abstract deadline, with specific reference towards the purpose of study and to ascertain their challenges.
 
Evaluation
 
Upon evaluation of the interview outcomes, it was established that many students are intimidated by the disciplines of mathematics, its related sciences and pure sciences, and generally shy away from these subjects, opting for less intense subjects, simply to pass the school years. There are indications that should they choose ‘easier’ subjects and pass with good grades, their parents would be happy with their results resulting is fewer arguments and confrontations. There are also claims that the teachers in the disciplines of mathematics, its related sciences and pure sciences, are under qualified, dispassionate and their instruction is often misunderstood. Coupled with these challenges, we have learnt that these students experience numerous socio-economic problems -  poverty, lack of support, sicknesses, child headed households, orphan status and inability to focus and study to mention a few.  
 
Research into the effects of apartheid in the disciplines of mathematics, its related sciences and pure sciences that resonate in the post-apartheid area.
‘South Africa has inherited a legacy of mediocre education standards arising out of the calculated policy of the former apartheid regime to prevent access to education to non-white South Africans. Most significantly, the level of achievement in Mathematics leaves much to be desired. International ranking instruments such as TIMMS rates South Africa last among 42 countries. The most important contributor to this trend is inadequate teacher preparedness which feeds the cycle of mediocrity’.
 
Let us dissect the calculated policy of apartheid – it was a coldly calculated mental genocide, a racial cleansing of all the faculties of the mind. It systematically and deliberately excluded a number of key subjects like mathematics, engineering, physical sciences, actuarial sciences, architecture and others from the majority of non-white public learning institutions. Even where it was allowed, there a catergorization: an ‘A’ grade for whites and an inferior ‘B’grade reserved for non-whites.
With the cleansing of the mind, there was a strain that was indelible – white superiority and non-white inferiority. South Africa is today in it’s eighteenth year of political liberation, but we are still dealing with the vestiges of that genocide and racial cleansing of the non-white mind.
 
Summative Assessment
 
It is believed, that with inadequate teacher preparedness, coupled with students numerous socio-economic challenges and ills and the cancerous vestiges of the apartheid mindset that the stringent disciplines of mathematics, its related sciences and pure sciences are reserved for the ‘superior’ and that the ‘easier’ subjects are reserved for the ‘inferior’.
 
Place yourself in the shoes of an indigent student. The student has parents, one maybe both who have basic employment, no employment or no parents. The parents have their own challenges in keeping their heads above water, and through great difficulty send their children to school with the bare essentials. When the student is at school, the teacher is inadequately prepared to grant instruction in the disciplines of mathematics, its related sciences and pure sciences.
 
Without a support structure and resources, the student performs poorly in these disciplines and chooses the less difficult ones.Coupled with the resonating effects of decades of apartheid on the mind and these socio-economic issues, few students remain on the path of the disciplines of mathematics, its related sciences and pure sciences, and the biblical analogy of the narrow and wide path comes to mind.
 
MuthalNaidoo once penned that ‘Schools, as we know them, are factories based on the principles of the conveyer belt and mass production.’ This mass production from the wide path, led to a deluge in certain fields and the trickle from the narrow path has led to a vast skills shortage in the fields of engineering, science, mathematics, statistics, actuarial sciences, architecture and similar related fields.
 
Alternative Specific Continuous Interventions
 
It is abundantly clear that alternative specific continuous interventions are imperative to support the efforts of educational institutions, teachers, academics and government to turn the tide and encourage students to pursue studies in the disciplines of mathematics, its related sciences and pure sciences.
 
To implement such interventions, the student’s life must be understood. If the student does not have food, clothing, support structure, material and financial resources, then an organization must be able to adopt the student and provide these. Simultaneously, we must be able to figuratively intravenously inject the cancerous vestiges of the apartheid mindset to encourage and catalyze interests in the disciplines of Mathematics, its related Sciences and Pure Sciences. It is also prudent; to performance manage the student during his or her secondary education until completion of tertiary studies and securing of employment. Once the students are firmly on their feet, he or she must be able to repay the material and financial resources offered by the organization and also be able to mentor other students. This methodology will ensure sustainability in terms of finances, education and skills transfer, mentoring, role-modeling and embracing of the grand spirit of Ubuntu.
 
The James Nxumalo Education Trust and the UKZN: Innovation in Mathematics has formed an association on these guidelines, which will be extended to the Jacob Zuma Education Trust.
 
The Trusts will identify thirty students of grades 10, 11 and 12respectively and coordinate transport for them to UKZN for Saturday class instruction in Mathematics and Physics for the year by the University.
 
The cost factor is University venue hire and Turbo Maths and Physics books only – Tuition will be provided free of charge by the University.
 
We are confident that over the years, the education standards in the disciplines of mathematics, its related sciences and pure scienceswill elevate. We are equally confident that these students will grow exponentially according to the Trusts and UKZN Innovation in Mathematics Joint Venturestrategic methodology, and will make inroads in addressing the critical skills shortage in the fields of engineering, science, mathematics, statistics, actuarial sciences, architecture and similar related fields, fostering economic development and job creation, which will inevitably contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of South Africans.
 
Acknowledgements
 
We acknowledge and thank Dr. Sudan Hansraj and the ANC for the extracts that were incorporated in this abstract.
~ Extract of the article 'The development of problem solving ability in post-apartheid South Africa' by Dr. Sudan Hansraj ~
~ Extract of the ANC Newsletter 20th January 2012 ~
 
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Ms Cabangile N. Ngwane    Supervisor:Dr.R.L. Makhubu
Department of Media, Language & Communication, Durban University of Technology, Box 1334, Durban, 4000, South Africa.+27 31 3736722(p),+27 31 3736734(f)
Factors which Enhance Social Equity at the eThekwini Municipality
 
Social equity is the greatest challenge facing eThekwini Municipality as well as South Africa at large.  This challenge emerges from the fact that South Africa is a diverse, multi-cultural Rainbow nation.  Colonization and apartheid created bitterness, oppression, exploitation, segregation, illiteracy, unequal education, inequality and discrepancy in most aspects of life between different race groups.  Since 1994, the Government of National Unity is trying to redress the imbalances of the past by introducing different Acts and programmesand other variousinitiatives.   Some of those initiatives are Acts like Skills Development Act, Employment Equity Act, Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment Act as well as Affirmative Action programme  Each and every municipality needs to tailor-make these initiates to suit their circumstances.  Furthermore, the municipalities also need to ensure that there is even distribution of services so as to ensure equality.  Municipal servants need to ensure that they implement Batho Pele principles when serving communities.  These initiatives need to be implemented properly in order to attain a harmonious society.  This paper will explore some strategies to which may be introduced with the intention of alleviating poverty as well as to mitigate inequality at the eThekwini Municipality.  It will conclude by making recommendations on some strategies to be implemented in order to enhance social equity.The quantitative method will be utilized to collect data for this research.
 
This paper falls under theme 7 as it addresses issues of social equity enhancement. However, it also falls under theme 5 because the municipalities govern areas which fall under their jurisdiction.
 
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WALKING WITH DIGNITY: THE DURBAN RICKSHAW RENOVATION PROJECT
By Rowan Gatfield (DUT -Lecturer and Creative Director)
 
The Rickshaw Renovation Project is a collaboration between staff and students of Workspace, a Work Integrated Learning Graphic Design Studio, in the Department of Visual Communication Design at Durban University of Technology; The Durban Rickshaw Pullers Association; and the Business Support, Tourism and Markets Unit of eThekwini Municipality. This Project aims to renovate twenty-five Rickshaw carts and the outfits and head-dresses worn by the Rickshaw Pullers.
 
This paper discusses the homogenisation and commodification of visual forms and colour conventions, found in the traditional beadwork of polities within rural KwaZulu-Natal, often sold as authentically  ‘Zulu’. It details how polity identities are being revisited and recreated, to assist in the economic and perceptive public repositioning of a waning Rickshaw industry. Further how these unique visual signatures have the potential to broaden the public experience and visual understanding of the ‘Zulu’ brand.
 
The paper then reports on the project’s progress to date. In particular, reference is made to the restoration of a prototype rickshaw, based on beadwork identities found in the Nongoma region of KwaZulu-Natal. Reference is also made to data gathered at Msinga, at the Reed Dance at enKonyeni and in museums and historical archives across KwaZulu-Natal, used to verify polity identities prevalent in the province.
 
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Ms. Nontobeko Mnyandu
Master’s degree student
Supervisor
Dr Lolie Makhubu
Durban University of Technology
Interpreting services in SASL and isiZulu in some of the courts in KwaZulu-Natal.
 
Signed language interpreting in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) is not yet recognised as the official language and it is not made as one of the priorities despite the profession having undergone major transformation since democracy. IsiZulu(one of the official languages) interpreting on the other hand, still has a lot that needs to be done regarding professionalism and formality of the interpreters. This study is prompted by the fact that many courts in KZN are using interpreters with little or no training in interpreting, in both the South African Sign Language (SASL) and isiZulu interpreting. Furthermore, the study argues that such interpreting may lead to poor flow of information or communication when it comes to rendering interpreting services during the court proceedings.
This paper mainly addresses Theme 5 as it deals with the issues of governance in the Department of Justice & Constitutional Development. It also accommodates Theme 7 and Theme 8. Under Theme 7 the paper looks at the deaf people and enhancing their social equity. On the other hand the isiZulu speakers mostly the grandparents could make their voices heard in their own mother tongue addressing their social equity. Under Theme 8 the papers looks at the issues of feeling safe and secure knowing that the police are there to assist you in your language and to protect you and also knowing that you will be using your own language in court.
 
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Presenters:  MRS SATHISHAH
Supervisor: Dr MANDUSHA MAHARAJ
Institution: Durban University of Technology
(Department: Marketing Retail & Public Relations Faculty: Management Sciences)
Title: Exploring inequality in institutional marketing to higher education by marginalised communities: Case Study at the Durban University of Technology
 
Orientation: Access to institutions of higher learning by disadvantaged demographic groups was promoted through various interventions (active marketing of higher education in these communities, access programmes to support learners and funding opportunities to encourage participation of potential students in higher education).  However, while the racial composition within higher education has changed substantially and is in line with the access transformational agenda, there seems to be an emerging concern that marginalised communities are continuing to be marginalised in accessing higher education.
 
Purpose:This study, therefore, attempts to explore and understand how institutions market themselves and how learners from marginalized communities experience these promotional interventions in accessing higher education.  The overall aim is to examine the access and enrolment policies, quality and equality in promoting educational access to institutions of higher learning, student recruitment and marketing tools with a view to understanding how marginalized communities understand, respond to and access higher education.
 
Research Methodology:A case study methodology is deemed as most appropriate as the research will focus on how higher education institutions markets itself amongst marginalised communities and the issues associated with this approach. The Durban University of Technology has been purposefully been selected as the institutional case study.
 
The data production process will include questionnaires being administered to all grade 12 learners across three secondary schools) in identified marginalised communities (more than 100km from DUT).Semi-structured interviews with career guidance teachers of the 3 selected schools, purposively selected.
Implications:The study will develop a model/ strategy for student recruitment at the Higher Education Institutions in KwaZulu-Natal, with specific reference to marginalised communities.
 
Key terms:Marginalised communities, Higher Education Instituitions, Access, student recruitment.
 
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Theme 8 - Safety and Security
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Presenter : Mwangi, Festus Maina
Institution : Durban University of Technology (DUT)
Supervisor : Prof. K. Kanny; KannyK@dut.ac.za ; TEL (W): 031 373 2230
Title : DEVELOPMENT OF GRANULAR-MEDIUM-BASED IMPACT   
  ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
 
Roads have always been non-ratified theatrical venues for accidental performances with unhappy endings. Key suppliers of the cast and décor include the local and central governments (roads), auto-manufacturers (vehicles), and human beings (drivers and/or passengers), not forgetting supporting-role performers like pedestrians and animals alike. The old school advocacy for prevention over cure remains imminent in virtually all performances. However, whenever one or more participants misses or misinterprets a line in the script, the scene calls for a standing innovation.
Historically, road accidents have always been there and will always be there in the foreseeable future. Most of the resultant damage entails the build-up, release and eventual sharing of the impact energy. To manage this impact energy, a granular-medium-based impact energy management system has been developed. The system has experimentally been subjected to low-to-medium velocity regime impacts. Unlike traditional design platforms where heavy reliance is placed on the intrinsic properties of materials, the experimental results indicate that the new system effectively relies on the underlying synergistic mechanisms to absorb and dissipate impact energy. Dynamic simulation results complement the empirical validation of the system's practical relevance.
The invention, otherwise referred to as the eFeM System, is aimed at enhancing safety by saving lives and minimizing damages on our roads networks by anticipating the impact energy, minimizing its potential build-up and controlling its propagation by pro-actively managing its consequences. To achieve these objectives, the invention has been integrated into the design of, among other products, the Traffic-Control-Robot and Tollgate-Crash-Barriers.
 
Key Words : Granular-Medium, Impact Energy, Absorption, Dissipation.
 
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Chris Overall: Crime Mapping and Analysis Project,Safer Cities, Ethekwini Municipality
Onke Mconi : Corporate GIS , Ethekwini Municipality
" Cam Cop” : a decision support  system driven application of CCTV as an enhanced crime prevention tool in the Durban CBD.
 
The detection of crime is one of the multiple objectives in the application of CCTV  by law enforcement agencies to deter,control and prevent crime (de Beer,M.2012) .
Considering that CCTV operators may have multiple cameras to monitor, it is imperative that a decision support system is employed to prioritise cameras for monitoring in terms of offence types detected ,volume of offences, time committed and location within the view schedule of the camera/s in question.Empirical analysis of all offences reported within the view schedule of an individual camera or set of cameras allows for the identification of priority times and locations where offender activity is most likely to be detected thus enhancing the detection rate of offences by a CCTV operator.
“Cam Cop” is an application developed in ArcGIS 10 with the view to providing a CCTV operator with a snapshot analysis of crime within the view schedule of an individual or multiple cameras under his/her control and providing an empirically derived area and time frame of operator focus thus reducing the effects of human bias in the detection of offences.
This paper sets out to do the following :
1.Document the development and application of “Cam Cop” in the Ethekwini Disaster Management Management CCTV component.
2.Calculate the change in offence detection by CCTV operators in high crime density locations of the Durban CBD area.
Key words : decision support systems,crime mapping and analysis, detection of crime, three dimensional view model, CCTV view schedule.
 
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CRIME TRENDS IN DURBAN
Brian O’Leary
eThekwini Municipality, Corporate Policy Unit
 
The SAPS Crime Report of 2010/11, in accordance with international best practice, used crime ratios per 100,000 persons to report on crime at the National and Provincial levels.  Crime ratios are essential when comparing crime between regions because ratios eliminate distortions related to variances in geographic area and population size. 
The SAPS Crime Report of 2010/11and previous reports did not use ratios to analyse crime at the Station level.  Previous analysis at the Station level was limited to total crime per category and was subject to distortions due to the varying area and population sizes between Stations.
 
To remedy these distortions the number of dwellings per Station was counted and the population calculated based on household occupancy rates.  The calculated population figure allowed for the crime rate per 100,000 to be calculated at the Station level.
 
This paper sets out to do the following:
 
1) To analyse the different spatial patterns that arise when mapping crime totals as opposed to crime ratios.
2)  To identify the Stations that have the greatest increase or decrease in crime rates for the following crimes: contact crime, murder, sexual crimes, robbery with aggravated circumstances, property crime and burglary.
3) To discuss the results of a public opinion survey related to crime victimisation, crime reporting, perceptions of safety and areas considered most unsafe.
 
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AN INTEGRATED DISASTER RISK ASSESSMENT MODEL FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
DR Mal Reddy
DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Associate Director: Public Management and Economics
 
The intensifying nature and extent of disasters together with the associated devastation and astronomical costs required to manage the rippling effects of disasters, enunciates the national and international focus on disaster risk reduction. The ever evolving and complex dynamics of risk as the decisive contributor to disasters has heightened the urgency to pursue effective disaster risk assessment as a prerequisite to inform the disaster risk management planning and disaster risk reduction intervention processes. A structured and systematic approach to disaster risk assessment assists in maintaining rigour thus promoting the quality and validity of the process and its outcomes. Appropriate models serve as valuable tools in enabling this methodological perspective to undertake disaster risk assessment. The non-existence of an appropriate disaster risk assessment model in South Africa has initiated the emphasis and purpose of this study thereby underscoring the critical need for the development of an effective, holistic and integrated disaster risk assessment model for local government in South Africa.
 
The research is based on an exploratory approach and involves a comparative review of three disaster risk assessment models vizthe Community-Wide Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment (CVCA) Model, the Community-Based Risk Reduction Model and the South African Disaster Risk Assessment Model interrogating the significant characteristics, structure and application of the models. The results of the comparison of the above three models provided the necessary insight for the development of the disaster risk assessment model for local government in South Africa.
 
Hence the approach in this paper is to provide an analysis into the conceptual framework, underpinning principles and operationalization of this Community Based Disaster Risk Assessment Model.
 
Keywords: Disaster; Progression of Safety; Disaster Risk Assessment; Disaster Risk reduction; Community Participation; Resilience.
 
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Presenters:  Dr MANDUSHA MAHARAJ and NDABEZINHLE NGOBESE
Institution: Durban University of Technology
(Department: Marketing Retail & Public Relations Faculty: Management Sciences)
CLIENT PERCEPTION OF SERVICE DELIVERY IN  THE SOUTH AFRICAN POLICE SERVICE COMMUNITY SERVICE CENTRES  IN THE GREATER DURBAN AREA
 
Orientation:The focus of the study was based on measurement of service quality dimension and service delivery in order to generate quality models for SAPS CSC in the eThekwini region. This study focuses on the determination of client perception of quality at the SAPS CSC. The main objective was to develop an understanding of the clients’ perception of the service delivery by the SAPS CSC.
 
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceptions of members of the public towards South African Police Service (SAPS), service delivery in the Community Service Centre (CSC) in the eThekwini area.
 
Research Design: The Servqual Model was used to establish the client’s perceptions against their expectations of service quality at the SAPS CSC. The person-administered survey was conducted at the main stations. Four hundred clients visiting SAPS CSC in the eThekwini were surveyed. The data was analyzed using Descriptive and Inferential statistics. The five service quality dimensions of the Servqual Model were used to measure client’s expectations and perceptions.
 
Results:The findings indicated that in all five service quality dimensions; (tangible, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy) negative quality gaps were obtained. The significant differences between perception and expectation of clients in all five service quality dimensions were noted.
 
Conclusion: Improvement is needed across all five service quality dimensions to improve service delivery. Furthermore, the result has revealed that client’s perception of service quality at the SAPS CSC falls below their expectations, presenting a great challenge to the organization. In order to improve service quality, it is recommended that SAPS need to regularly assess and monitor employees, as well as clients experiences and provide feedback especially the eThekwini region, as the survey was conducted in the region
.
Key terms:Servqual model, service delivery, South African Police Services, service quality
 
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REDUCING THE INCIDENTS OF WILDFIRES THROUGH HAZARD AND RISK MAPPING
M. N Procter
 
Veldfires in the Free State Province of South Africa are a frequent occurrence and cause considerable disturbance to ecosystems and property. A reliable risk based management strategy to manage wildfire may enhance protection of life, property and the environment.
 
This study utilized the Risk Formula where:
 
The study represents a first step in an intricate problem. Five years of fire data were obtained from the Meraka Institute at the CSIR. These data were used to calculate probability distribution functions which were used to randomly simulate, a series of fire probabilities using an existing empirical and deterministic model. The contribution of Fire Danger Index (FDI), fuel load content and fire intensity was examined. The study included measures taken to increase resilience; thereby reducing vulnerability.
 
Current approaches to the problem, however, mainly focus on the probability of fire occurrence respectively the expected frequency of wildfires for a time period. Usually, these results are calculated for relatively large regions. Only recently attempts are being made to tackle fire occurrence at a local scale. To get insight in wildfire risk as it is understood here, these methods must be combined with approaches to estimate the impact of Veldfires and measures that have been taken to increase resilience. For this reason, the presented framework for Veldfire risk assessment integrates fire occurrence modelling with methods for the assessment of fire effects, and elements of resilience, linking the three by tables of consequence for each. Hence, it brings together three major topics of wildfire research that are normally considered more or less isolated.
 
Knowledge of where the risk from veld fires is the greatest allows one to implement measures to mitigate the problem. Risk management may improve the existing hazard management approach to Veld-fire management by shifting the focus of management to the asset to be protected. This allows for the consideration of alternative mitigation strategies not considered using pure hazard management. The end result is a spatial map based on a 25km2 grid that indicates graded areas of Risk from Veldfires within each Local Municipality in the Free State. The paper concludes with a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of this approach.
 
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TITLE: BACK-ANALYSES STUDIES OF THE QUARRY HEIGHTS ROAD LANDSLIDE, DURBAN.
AUTHORS: E.D.C. HINGSTON & K. NAIDOO
INSTITUTION: Discipline of Geological Sciences, School of Agriculture, Earth and Environment, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.
 
ABSTRACT: Landslides are a major natural hazard in many parts of the world and account for enormous damage to property.  The landslide in Quarry Heights Road, Durban, in a Rural development Project (RDP) settlement in November 2011 led to the damage of several houses and massive displacement of people.  The assessment of landslide hazards is difficult because of the many uncertainties which arise in the evaluation of the conditions that led to failure.  The techniques of ‘back-analysis’ is an attractive procedure in determining the conditions that led to a landslide, and thus very useful in preventing future landslide occurrences or perhaps minimize the hazards associated with such disasters.  The back-analyses techniques have been employed in assessing the landslide at Newlands east with particular emphasis on the shear strength of the materials and groundwater conditions that led to failure.  Results show that the geological conditions on site, coupled with the strength of the material properties and groundwater conditions were responsible for the landslide.  The advantages and disadvantages in undertaking back-analyses studies are also presented.  The study further shows that the building up of settlements over hazardous areas without taking into account the geological conditions on site, increases the impact of natural disasters particularly so in developing countries. 
 
Keywords: landslides, back-analyses, shear strength, hazards, uncertainties, groundwater
 
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The archaeology of violence
 
Inspired by the excavations at Sibudu Cave near the uThongathi River, this paper uses the metaphor of archaeological layers to analyse issues of masculinity and violence in a study of African men who are lifesavers in Durban and have been employed by the eThekwini Metro, drawing also on work by Valerie Walkerdine (2005, 2011).   The purpose of the paper is twofold: first, to explore the dynamics of masculinity in a longitudinal study of 11 lifesavers who were interviewed in 1997 and (where possible) also in 2011/2012, and secondly to develop the use of archaeological layers as a metaphor for demonstrating how experience over long periods of time becomes sedimented in the lives of the present.   There is both violence and difficulty in the lives of these men, as well as new emerging forms of care and hope.  The conclusion addresses why it is difficult for a society with long levels of historical violence to overcome that violence, but also sets out what are the possibility for setting down new layers which reflect the hope and equity of the new South Africa.
 
Crispin Hemson
Director, International Centre of Nonviolence
Durban University of Technology